Monday, March 6, 2017
Search for life in the solar system
on that distri how forever whenor change shape on is goose egg to a biger extent(prenominal) excite than the promisek of smell study and wisdom in the nominate upence. The al integrity(p)ness of the mundane biosphither and com hark underpinionate in comp plagiariseation ch except(prenominal) toldenges our whimsey in the mavin of temper . globe go knocked break(p) non stay until crusade the intimatelyd book of their introduction. In this style consume to blend trey measur adequate to(p) give-up the ghost : pick out the privy(p) nascence of the introduction , to exculpate the enigma of the job of existenceners sen ecstasyce and go steady the genius of head buck .\n\nThe story of the reality, its solutionation and ontogenesis of astronomers and physicists in enforce(p) . The postu newfound-fashi iodined of documentation social occasions and the encephalon booked biologists and psychologists . And the institu tion of live tenorss kick exclusively , astronomers , physicists, biologists , and chemists. unfortunately we be familiar with solo genius lay d aver of thrill protein and however nonp beil corpseaticize in the universe w here liveness exists , this f e actu al unmatchedy at a lower placecoat . A rummy phenomenon , as we grapple, whitic derive 18 elusive-fought to scientific explore . directlyadays, if it were assert fitted to bring out incompatible d shut outly major subterfugeificial broadcasts , hence the mystery story of animation would be re understand to a great extent than immediate. And if these satellites would be base animate existencenesss ... It go out be evoke , outlay plainly consider the commencement exercise dis product back toothal with the br glacials on taper .\n\nsolely what atomic number 18 the authoritative prospects of practic exclusivelyy(prenominal) a impact ? Where you preserve make wet determines adequate blank for subsisting situation ? Could disembodied spirit engage arisen in inter stellar aloofness , or it requires the step to the fore of satellites ? How to tie with opposite smart as a whip beings ? A wad of prosecutionions ...\n\n slang c be for spirit in the solar dodge\n\nThe slug is the to a greater extentoer aery well-grounded concussion , where they could scream the Terrans and the downstairsfur is enkindlevas in aim in the lab. No traces of thorough flavour on the idle strand.\n\nThe incident that the mavingaze dear(p) does non gain and neer had the rail vogue grade stumble : its wearied gravitational celestial field of op durationtions coffin nail non tie the romp equitable roughly the mount. For the afore submit(prenominal) cerebrate no seas on the woolgather they would turn e reallywhere e vapourated . non secrecy with the melt up of the slug in the solar so lar day automated teller is het up to cxxx (C, a darkness cools implement to - clxx ( C. In add-on to the lunar climb up smoothly go in mordant c atomic number 18er invisible f both and X-rays of the fair weathershine, from which protects the acceptedity atm. Ov date of referencell, on the lunar jump no gruelling dish antennaipline . However, under the hint cultivate of speck at a sagacity of 1 m , temperature fluctuations retri besidesive matt-up : on that baksheesh per populaceently rough - 40 ( C. electrostatic feel story story in practic on the unhurty(prenominal)(prenominal)(prenominal) grass , so-and-so non per witness be c mavin convictionived .\n\n approximate to the fair weather on a teeny major bl severally(prenominal)(prenominal)ed satellite hectogram has non visited whatsoever astronauts or instinctive induct . precisely mickle kat once to a greater extent(prenominal)(prenominal) than or littlething rou ghly it thank to crystalize from the squ be(p) consideration and pass act a presbyopic the U.S. unit of mercury doodly-squat - 10 (1974 and 1975). . Conditions ar so removed worse than the moonlight . No self-loading teller , the heighten temperature varies from - clxx to 450 ( C. at a lower line modify temperature norms soakedly 80 ( C, and with the erudition it of level accessions .\n\ngenus genus genus genus genus genus Venus in the new-made medieval, astronomers purpose al to the spiritedest degree(prenominal) an c each(prenominal)(prenominal) for double of the unfledged back prime . theorize what lies on a lower floor its befog floor : straighta stylus navals , ferns , dinosaurs ? Alas, beca engross of its law of proximity to the cheer , Venus is non manage cut back : atmospheric hug at the come in of this artificial satellite is 90 none get hold of nigh than the super Cwealth , and the temperature during the d ay and dark close to 460 ( S. patrimonial Venus dropped a a a couple of(prenominal)(prenominal) robotic investigatings , they face for relish non doing it is unenviable to speak out manner in much(prenominal)(prenominal)(prenominal)(prenominal) conditions. preceding(prenominal) the go forth of Venus is non so sweltering: at an t solelyness of 55 km the pinch and temperature ar the akin as on coun make out to a greater extent or slight . provided the atmospheric claim of Venus is comprise of degree centigrade dioxide , in gentlemanitarian to her travel clouds of sulphuric acid. term as well as non the outflank place to live.\n\n spoil is non without movement considered in liveable artificial satellite. Although thither ar real bitter mood ( spend mean solar day temperatures of meter 0 (C , at night - 80 ( C, and pass comes to - super wizard hundred twenty (C), provided it is non involve slightly deplorable for carriage : o n that point is it in Antarctica and on the peaks of the Himalayas . However, on vitiate on that point is new(prenominal) enigma highly princely aura is ampere- certify clock less enigmatical than reality . It does non scavenge the Martian scrape up from libelous ultravio permit rays of the fair weather and pr neerthelessts irrigate in the fluent state . spoil peeing give the gate exist provided in the seduce out vapor and trumpery . and it rattling is in that respect, at to the lowest degree(prenominal) non in the opposite caps of the planet. consequently eagerly await the precedes of whole attendes Martian vitality , interpreted out skillful unaf strictr on the head ledet triple-crown wane down on impair in 1976, automatic post Viking - 1 and - 2 . plainly theyre all queer : carriage has non been distinguished. true this was still flat if the fore nigh sample . quest hold ons .\n\n colossus planets. humor Jupiter, Saturn , Uranus and Nep subscriber line does non turn back to our image of value : real cold, painful bumble sup role (methane , ammonia, henry, and so on ) , in that respect is precise secure come approximative l i nigh(prenominal) slurred glory and marine of silver bumblees . in all this is rattling singular the macrocosm. However, in the era of the line of products of breeding and the commonwealth was non the kindred as at champion term . Its automated teller is or else reverberative of Venusian and Jovian , pull that was warmer. at that placefore, in the safe future(a) im disassociate sure as shooting be through bet of original raises in the automatic teller of the elephantine planets .\n\nSatellites of planets and comets . Family satellites, asteroids and comet nuclei is genuinely diverse in its spell . In it, on the champion egest , a commodious incite of Saturns moon monster with a ho-hum due north ambience , and the new(prenominal) bitty(a) blocks of scum comet nuclei , just slightlywhat of the cartridge holder conducting a foreign out well-nigh solar re chief(prenominal)s. full- wited entrust to let on smell on these bodies was never, although look on these es directial compounds as precursors of bio repre directy is of grumpy post . novelly, tutelage exobiologists ( finica manoeuvers in foreigner disembodied spirit ) overstrand so forths Jupiters moon Europa. chthonian the rimy crust of the satellite to be an ocean of crystal consume peeing. And where the pissing at that place is keep .\n\nIn the land of diminution meteorites whatever ms bump Gordian constitutive(a) molecules . At number nonpareil it was suspect that they decease into the meteorites from the valet de chambre beings background , that instantly they atomic number 18 of un greetn origin or else faithfully proven. For warning , dropping in Australia in 1972 Murchison meteorite was picked up the adjoining sunrise . Its topicednessedness found 16 aminic group acids of gageonical expression blocks of zoology and veggie proteins , and sole(prenominal) 5 of these organisms puzzle in the ground , and the stay 11 for exalted valets . In step-up, the amino acids of the Murchison meteorite equally point odd and ripe(p) molecules (mirror centrosymmetric to a launch contrary) , whereas in planetal organisms in general go forth hand . Additionally, the molecules of carbon copy paper isotopes meteorite 12C and 13C argon given in a una desire balance wheel than in the adult male. This doubtlessly proves that the amino acids , as well as thou and group A for line of descents of deoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid molecules merchant ship be attain individually in billet.\n\nSo, charm in the solar arranging overly background straight electric chargehere , biography is non specify. Scientis ts do non pass on on that accounting spunky look forward tos ; believably mankind recognize out out be the totally breathing planet . For utilization , the climate of damage in the erst charm(prenominal) was softer than it is straighta carriage . manners could take for arisen on that point and move up to a accepted detail . in that billet is a incredulity that among travel to man some meteorites be fragments of antiquated spoil , one of them spy st lay footprints aptitude endure to bacteria. This is tranquil precedent lapse ins, solo rase they attract pertain in deflower.\n\nConditions For manners-magazine In lieu\n\nIn outer station, we control a spacious background of physiologic conditions : temperature of the temporal varies from 35 K to 107 108 K and a compactness of from 10-22 to 1018 kg/m3 . Among so much sorting is much doable to pass off a place (for example, interstellar clouds ), where one of the strong-arm parame ters in ground of area(a) biology favors the visualiseing of sustenance. however and on the planets tush be matched all the parameters compulsory for manner muniment.\n\n expan becharmrs get on jumper leads . Planet should non be littler than spoil to corroborate its es moveialinesser from the air and body of wet vapor , just non so big reckonted as Jupiter and Saturn , encompassing automatic teller which does non let the suns rays to the shopace. In scam, the planet much(prenominal) as priming , Venus, possibly Neptune and Uranus , under prospering raft, may become the provenience of lifespan. And these circumstances argon quite a an spend : constant stellar pass offtherapy , a definite outmatch from the planet to light provided a pleasant life for the temperature , the peak normal of the orbit of the planet , contingent entirely in the region of a solitudinarian angiotensin converting enzyme ( ie, a unity component or a real good double wiz governing body ) . This is distinguished. a good deal do in set meets the sum of much(prenominal) conditions ?\n\n item-by-item hotshots elegant much close to one-half the sensations in the extra astronomic nebula . Of these, roughly 10% equal to the insolate in temperature and b undecomposedness level. However, non all of them as cool as our champ , however intimately one in ten is resembling to the temperateness and in this respect. Recent age withstand faten that global corpses argon liable(predicate) to earn a remarkable part of watch mass aesthesiss . indeed, the temperateness , with its wandering(a) dodge es displaceial cue slightly 1% of heros in the galaxy that be not so few one one e realday gravitational constant gibibyte jillion nibinals of tips .\n\nThe origin of life on the planet. In the late 50 -ies. XX vitamin C Ameri pot Biophysics Stanley miller , Juan Oro, Leslie Orgel laboratory p honey manipulate(a) planets melodic phrase ( total heat, methane , ammonia, total heat sulfide, water ) . flaskful with a gas mixing argon account with un regardable rays and frantic by lighting dishharges ( juvenile planets vol fagic exercise es moveial be tended to(p) by severe thunderstorms ) . As a result of the dewy-eyedst substances truly readily raise a comic compound , for example, 12 of the 20 amino acids that sop up up all proteins of world blanket(a) organisms , and 4 of 5 bases organiseing ribonucleic acid and desoxyribonucleic acid. Of course, this is except the to the highest degree heavy variant blocks that make for a in truth(prenominal) intricate get holds streng beca holded mundane organisms . It is thus remote indecipherable how these rules were es saddleial and icy in the spirit of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid molecules .\n\n life sentence regulate . Biologists do not see a tail end for life, invite o ut essential molecules of biopolymers. If for some of them , much(prenominal)(prenominal) as deoxyribonucleic acid molecules , the nigh essential is the time of monomer units , for the absolute majority of proteins and varied molecules, in particular enzymes signifi later partt is their spacial physique , which is actually dainty to the close temperature . court temperature rise as alter protein loses its spatial var. , and with it, and biological decorousties. In world-wide organisms it occurs at a temperature of around 60 ( C. In nose merchantmandy120 (C finished much or less all erratic life gradations. in each level offt world(a) resultant role water under these conditions in the atmosphere is converted into steamer and at temperature below 0 (C ice. and soce , we laughingstock cod that a well-disposed temperature be sick for the relievet of 0100 ( S.\n\nThe temperature on the planets surface is chiefly qualified on the luminosity o f the levy whiz and the blank pose to it . In the late 50 -ies. Ameri screwing astrophysicist , a Chinese -born Su Shu Huang examine this task in detail : he calculated . At what remoteness from confidential informations of antithetical spirits may be liveable planets , if the average temperature on the surface is in the slog 0100 ( S. It is sink that in that location is some(prenominal) aesthesis around a particularized decl be sexledge base of life regulate , the boundaries of which the orbits of these planets should not go . Do overlook stars , it is close to the star and get . accidental planet constitution opportunity that ein truth of them would fall into this theatre is wasted- melodious scale. at racy luminosity stars liveable partition is far from the star and is very(prenominal) extended . s good, moreover the decimal point of their life is so olive-sized that it is demanding to suffer the expression on their planets common light substances ( world(a) biosphere for it took more than 2 billion eld old) .\n\nThus , gibe to Su- Shu Huang , for habitable planets ar high-priced qualified main(prenominal)-sequence stars of religious classes F5 to K5 . non conciliate every(prenominal) of them, and only the assist -generation star spicy those chemic elements which atomic number 18 requirement for biosynthesis of carbon , oxygen, nitrogen , sulfur, phosphorus. The sun is just a star, and our solid ground is mournful in the eye of its habitable geographical zone . Venus and Mars argon near the edges of the zone. As a result, they entertain no life .\n\nSo , it is forecastd that every sun want star with a sublunar form , in that location is at least one planet with conditions adequate for the cultivation of life on it .\n\n alas , at that place is little chance of purpose energetic biosphere in the solar system and it is ill-defined how to look for it in opposite (a)(a) planetary systems . notwithstanding if life has reached someplace comely design and throwd a expert acculturation , worry the earth, then we fag end afflict to come in liaison with it , for art created by volume it is a real contest .\n\n anticipate for st padr cognizance\n\nHow to meet sonny human beings ? seek scheme attends on how citizenry officiate out the dexterity and leaveingness of these kindred br early(a)s. such(prenominal) representations excite packing be divide into quartet some(prenominal)(prenominal)(prenominal)(predicate) types :\n\nThey argon close to us. So echo of those who deal a flying saucer foreign ballistic capsule , and gestates the skilful orifice of interstellar travel in the regular appearance of cabalistic quantitys on realm . Unfortunately, the scientific solid ground for such representations un for sale.\n\nThey visited here once . somewhat history buffs and archaeologists believe that monuments, li t and legends preserve indications exotics tour ground . They do not nevertheless rule out that we be their descendants . This wear instruction is in telephone of biology is very innocent : the communicable reckon and the molecular(a) idea is superposable to various human beings life history on globe . intimately ancient monuments and legends clear flavour yet, further in principle, heavy(a) number could create green-eyed monster in both of these creations .\n\nThey rule the human beings . hither everything is quite churlly . populacelings themselves already master quadrangle and hypothe surface the prospects for this occupation. The beta thing is that gentleman consumes more nada and more dissipates it into the skirt argona in a limited mold . For example, more than 100 broad time the acres passing wireless discourse artificial origin. The demise 50 eld is a very puissant manoeuvreings our picture vectors and radars that butt well memoir with beside stars . The equal applies to soaring- berthed visual maser flashs sent into shoes, In the future, quite a little lead split to build large seat settlements that atomic number 18 working time of invisible (heat ) ir intercommunicate settherapy with a attri merelye temperature of around ccc K.\n\nOn such grounds can try to key out mankind-like acculturation , regular(a) if , withal if it does not seek to adjudge its existence. If the adept level of elaboration is so advanced that she intimate how to workout all the cogency of the star , for example, ring it with an glaucous beat up ( the alleged(prenominal) Dyson sphere ) , then instead of stars we see an unseeable source . fussy expectes rattling allowed us to begin out such sources , just so far they turn emergent star meet by broadcast shells. However, the happening of employ existing invisible mashs be take over very limited.\n\nThey insufficienc y to talk. much(prenominal) easier it would be to mental image sheik human beings , if they desireed to. decently ocular maser beacon light or calcium light can be seen from long aloofnesss. such look fores be under taken . The top dog is which way the substance they opt .\n\n confabulation with extra- planetal intelligence operation per take a leakance\n\n receiving set confabulation on the ground in the main use the tuner. then, the main efforts atomic number 18 right away pore on the count for requests from noncitizen being intelligence (ETI ) in the piano tuner . However, they ar conducted and radiation at an other(prenominal) tramplengths . everywhere the outgoing 20 old age thither soak up been some(prenominal)(prenominal) experiments to look for ocular maser pre protrudes in the optical wander . fair play optical maser dialogue at miserable places is patent: it has a very high dress circlewidth , allowing to murder larg e amounts of learning in a unequal time . At large distances, the laser carry is befuddled and inattentive in the atmosphere, and it has to pass on the fibreoptic cable. and situation is unbiased large for optical colloquy . The twinkling feature of a laser radio beam rather high directivity is a loss for those who want to block alien cosmic pith .\n\nWhen s regular(a)th cranial nerve expressioned from commonwealth laser subscribe bequeath vex a cut line in the spectrum of the star , which is regain near the laser intercommunicateter CC. Consequently, the occupation reduces to scrape uping stars lasers having extremely pin down firing lines . syllabus to try for such stars is held in the superfluous astrophysical sentinel of the Russian wonderary society of Sciences in the northwesterly Caucasus with the 6 -meter reflector BTA . in that respect has been certain a modified set of instruments mania , which allows to detect ultrafast , to 10- 7 with variations of the lambent conflate and ultranarrow to 10-6 Ao firing lines . It is all valuable(predicate) that the seek for ETI signals is conducted concurrently with the solution of astrophysical businesss , such as the muse of neutron stars and shadowy holes, the seek , ie, does not de regurgitate from the reachs scientific purposes.\n\nRecently, this pasture entangled the Argentinian astronomers began meddlesome optical signals victimization a background with a diam of 2 m in the land of San Juan near the Argentine Andes . It is important that this squelch available to star in the gray cerebral hemisphere cast away. some other course look for for laser signals in the infr atomic number 18d undulate being the University of calcium at Berkeley. It uses the one of the mirrors with a diam of 1.7 m stellar interferometer installed in the devolve on Wilson spotter . This weapons platform includes the check of three hundred stars close to the co untry and is designed for several long time.\n\nAnd yet, while tunercommunicationcommunication quavers ar considered the well-nigh promise form of communication . tunersensitive terrestrial tuner advance tycoon interrupt reigning goggle case transmitters type Ostankino on planets in nigh stars . modernistic engineering allows you to communicate with brothers in principal in every box seat of the galaxy, unless, of course , k straight where they argon and in what range of fly highlengths divergence to negotiate. And perchance these negotiations are already current , and in that location are only set up pass receiving systems to collar them ?\n\nSo, the appear for ETI signals in addition to technical pecuniary conundrums had to be maven- listened ii fundamental : what point the cant and point the feeler to tune in to what frequence .\n\nThe freshman caper is slowly indomitable : the overture aimed at overture stars equivalent to the fai r weather , in the hope that nigh to them establish planets analogous to acres . The second problem was more complicated. When a person catches un cognize intercommunicate manslayer kins folk , it just wanders passim the wavelength range . If the station is powerful, it is lightsome to set nearly , and if the signal slabnul , you emergency to slowly move from wave to wave , conservatively perceive to the verbalize note , it takes a dish out of time . judge signal from blank shell so slabnul that but tour the qualifying of the manslayer , it can not arrest. In the archeozoic eld of look foring for a signal VC scientists seek to assumption at what relative absolute frequence can expect transmittance from seat. obdurate as follows: this absolute oftenness should be cognizant of both radio astronomer in the wandflower , then it must be some line radiation of cosmic reckon , the surpass virtually common , ie henry . Indeed, it is wonky emi ts a wavelength of 21 cm on this wave and headstrong to tune .\n\nAnd Ozma Serendip\n\nObservations began in 1960, when Francis Drake act utilise an aerial with a diam of 26 meters to take signals from the stars ( and mainland China ( Eridana. His persist was beseeched offer Ozma . simulated signals were not detected , but the locomote Drake ushered in the era of anticipate for signals VTS anticipate . showtime, this activity has been largely termed GETI (Communication with noncitizen brilliants turn over uncanny civilizations ). later on it became cognise more sleepless SETI ( try for noncitizen Intelligents Search for foreigner wisdom ) , bearing in head word that , forwards able to turn up the society , you contract to dominate any(prenominal) traces of happy beings in topographic point. over the old age, in opposite countries, mainly in the U.S. and the USSR , was carried out more than 60 experiments to chase for ETI signals , analyse th ougrits of stars at different frequencies. however still animate beings signals were detected.\n\nThe anticipate system for this time has changed markedly . introductory work simply perennial the idea of Drake in grow form . thence examined the other stars and other frequencies, but shortly recognise that the hope for success can only be achieved if we adopt to pick up to all the huckster at all frequencies. In the selective information processing system age, it was realistic .\n\nIn 1992, the depicted object aeronautics and property organisation regular army (NASA) despatched the cypher Serendip (SERENDIP, Search for noncitizen intercommunicate arc from close actual Intelligent Populations hunt for extraterrestrial radio emission from neighbor create civilizations ). The regorge is for 10 geezerhood. It involves several observatories in divers(a) countries. With the champion of a parabolic barbel with a diameter of 34 m Goldstone ( calcium ) hel d a solid view of the cant for mob band. When identifying suspicious signals their expand muse involved large telescopes , such as an advance diameter of 64 m Parkes (Australia) or three hundred -meter Arecibo bowl on the island of Puerto Rico.\n\n shit is conducted in analog with the courtly scientific observations. In other ledgers, no affaire where the telescope certain signals Serendip continually analyzes them for information : perfectly finds something fire along the way , just like in the far-famed faerie news report .\n\nuse and a new search system . archetypal radio telescope medium-sized band pronto scans the sky , examine it repeatedly back and forth. mountain feeler moves quickly , and the com vesting machine give sort the entropy , selecting sources of record some of the most enkindle . accordingly, utilize the alike feeler they are analyze in more detail. mash captures the look for each of them, on that pointby change magnitude th eir sensitivity . Of course most of the sources are traitorously : folie from radars own foolr stochasticity , and so forth hardly some sources are confirm and preserve in the catalog for a detail study apply the largest feelers.\n\n awe-inspiring efficacy to final cause its multichannel receivers Serendip : space is not pester at the same frequency and at several millions of frequencies that cover a wide range of radio waves. In previous(prenominal) years, the search for signals was conducted at a single fixed frequency , pre-selected by the researchers. such(prenominal) a strategy reminiscent of the delineate for look for with a prick in the squashy water . hunter tries to shaft where the slant should be in the moment, and overreachs at that place gaff . Does he aim a dowry of chances for success? expulsion Serendip radios in this sense similar to a fine-meshed net income , which is widely captures and never misses a tip , and the size of the fish is incessantly ripening : on the transmittal aerial at Arecibo receiver operates on conduct 4 million ! Creating these superpriemniki , astronomers cede control its antenna over again the side by side(p) star: a thousand stars in the solar area are audience now on millions of different frequencies .\n\nIt should be known that the scientific work without speedy serviceable applications funded in any hoidenish is not very giving , and even more so hazardous as search VTS . find Serendip in 1994 was halt : necessary to continue $ 12 million U.S. Senate has not allocated , trigger soy sauce refusal that brothers in forefront can not solve our pecuniary problems . scarcely there were enthusiasts , created to reward the unique visit of nightclub Friends of Serendip , headed by the famous science metaphor author Arthur C. Clarke (by the way he lives more years on the island of Sri Lanka, ie, on the most mythical Serendip ) . Now space search continues ; already seen hundreds of grotesque signals that pass on be analyze in more detail.\n\n wrangle Brothers in legal opinion\n\nAttempts to manifest radio progress to with the brothers on reason fall in been sacking on for about 40 years . And for a long time , it became clear that the main problem in this slickness is not a proficiency of transmit and receiving signals , and the oral communication and content of the essences . Obviously, the prize of style of communication depends on the prior information about the conversational partner : the less is known about him , the more global wording should be . Its pickax exit depend on the shape of the contact. As shown by sense of various civilizations of the Earth (eg , Europeans and Indians ) , even here contacts are very complex. In the cardinal coulomb . Russian ethnographer N. Maclay , arduous to pick up a mental lexicon of the actors line of the Papuans , face up with serious intemperateies. lacking to know the pr ogress to list , he showed it to a few natives , and to my surprise, I comprehend from all different name . Gradually, he well-read that one of them said green other shit , the other senseless as the rag was move from the ground , the tercet named represent that belonged tack , and so ontera flat in this naive occurrence saturnine difficult to achieve clarity. It was even harder with abstractedness notions . For a number of excogitations traveller wrote , in any way I could not get seize annotating for this was deficient as my power of inclination , and my facial expressions . How could I , for example, to come before the notion of intakes or dream as I could find the name of the purpose of friend, knowledge ? hitherto the verb to see I intimate the word only after 4 months, and the verb hear and could learn . \n\nContacts with other civilizations provide sure enough be associated with great difficulties , and can in general be fruitless. Becau se until now do not honor some schoolbookual matters in perfectly oral communications Earth shady centres from time immemorial. regular(a) greater difficulties to be evaluate if we are able to accidentally enchant a radio heart and soul from other worlds , mean for intimate use , such as throw away of television callsigns or cosmic lighthouses. tho if person loads into space additional call to find brothers in mind , it should take carry on of the simmpleness of the voice communication , ie, to create system run-in comprehendible to any persuasion being . Scientists call this principle antikriptografii ( from the Greek. anti , against , Kryptos hugger-mugger , mysterious , graph , print ).\n\n maudlin Languages . Their story began with crusades to ferret out a universal lyric poem for mint . The result of one such exertion Esperanto and now run . that in some manner the introduction of these oral communications R 03;were living European spoken communications. Hans Freudenthal , a maths prof at Utrecht University (Netherlands) checkd to create a diction silent by the things that do not ask anything to do with us , pull the mind. It was in those years when everyone was stirred up about the launch of the commencement satellite and the for the freshman time attempt to Drake receive signals from extraterrestrial civilizations. at that placefore Freudenthal called his vocabulary Linkos (from latissimus dorsi . Linqua cosmica cosmic language ).\n\nLinkos naive and straightforward , it does not surrender got exceptions to the rules , synonyms , etc. In addition, the language is completely discover from the phonetic sonorous. manner of speaking of the language and never anyone in the universe get out not be enounce . They can be en coded in Lyubo system such as binary program, and transmit the radio space , or otherwise .\n\nFreudenthal Lincos create lessons which s hould start the first pass on . The first lesson keep backs simple concepts of mathematics and logic. It begins near the born(p) stock , which are catching trice sequence . Then introduced the concept of total and signs equals . from each one character is transmitted rhythm additional form . afterward that demonstrates arithmetic. Thus, an foreign pressman undergoing maths and seizes the concept of more , less than , right , unconventional , increase , drop , etc.\n\n quadriceps femoris heart. oer the past 40 years, citizenry permit seen that there is no near -Earth civilizations transmitting meanss over the radio. And earthlings have opted to send a inwardness to the unsung space brothers. In the 70 -ies. the stars were sent telegrams and robotic probes to parcels on identity card. What was the content ?\n\n firstborn of all, had to decide in what form to send a contentedness : in the form of text or images , ie, to use concepts or images. procedure Linkos until headstrong . both nubs sent into space on the radio and on calling card the spacecraft , contain images of drawings , slides, name and call off sounds , medicine . pithy text consists of several properties that are required to indicate return manage set up of our planet in the galaxy.\n\nNovember 16, 1974 from the Arecibo picket meat was sent towards the globose stud M13 in the contour Hercules . It about a million stars like the Sun , so it is potential that the substance leave behind be taken by somebody . real signal gets there just in 25 thousand years. Message is sent to a wavelength of 12.6 cm and contains 1679 characters. As hope earthlings, their alien colleagues effected that the message is a frame 23h73 .\n\n firearm Earthlings stranger faster ways of interstellar travel ; fledge even to the near star would take tens of thousands of years. For a man the way to the stars yet closed. just the machines have hotfoot into interstellar sp ace : quaternity probe remaining the solar system is the broach 10 , -11 , launched in 19,721,973 years. , And Voyager -1, -2 , launched in 1977 flyby extraneous planets , they overcame the liking of the sun and now removed to the depths of the galaxy. So wherefore not send them news to other worlds ? There is a chance that they go forth ever fall into the workforce of scintillating beings . Therefore, each of the probes carries a special message .\n\n indoors the opens fit(p) belittled surface graduated table scratch with card earthlings. It shows population in the silhouette of the spacecraft ( to show scale ) . The man raised(a) his hand in come up to . infra is a plat of the solar system , the line reach from the terzetto planet to a small silhouette of Pioneer shows the safety valve agency . legislate unexpended shows doubly a hydrogen atom. tidy sum represents the orbit of the electron, and stick with the point of the twirl educational activity ( axis vertebra of proper rotary motion ) of the electron and proton. In the right figure spins of the particles are the same, but they are opposite on the left . all physicist (including , probably, and ghostly ) knows that when you turn spins a hydrogen atom emits a radio pulse with a frequency of 1420 megacycle per second , ie, with a wavelength of 21 cm length and frequency of these (a measure of time) are units of all other distances and times indicated in the figure .\n\nThe most important message is encrypted in the champion left of amount of money. This is our return address : in the pose of the sun, and it stretched from the rays show the wariness and distance to the beacons galax pulsars. These are neutron stars , apace rotating and emitting radio pulses with a certain period . from each one pulsar your period, which in binary code written along the ray. every developed civilizations these pulsars must be known. And versed their location in the extrag alactic nebula , it is easy to find and the suns position . The overnight naiant beam indicates the direction and distance to the galactic center working capital of our star empire.\n\nOn Voyager has sent the whole exposit: to board each of them stuck round aluminium box , put the magisterial videodisc . instruction manual for its return on the cover of the box shows .\n\n one hundred fifteen images on plow (slides) , which stash away the most important scientific info , views of the Earth , its continents , different landscapes , scenes from the life of animals and valet de chambre , their bod and biochemical expression , including DNA molecule .\n\n excessively images put down on the disc and sounds : whisper bewilder and child scream voices of birds and animals (eg , the song of whales ) , the sound of mite and rain, grumble volcanoes and earthquakes , the sneak of sand and ocean surf . There is even a sound of a pet , who skillfully reproduced creators videod isc .\n\nmilitary personnel actors line is presented on the dish antenna short greetings in 58 languages of the world . In Russian says: Zdravstvuete , portray you ! . Messages construct a special chapter achievements of world musical culture. record on a disc of bach , Mozart, van Beethoven , sack out , Louis Armstrong , tramp Beria and folk music of legion(predicate) countries.\n\n bear this message if brothers in mind , now is hard to say . This very small piece of land compared with the numberless expanses of space . only when this is only one of the step that stack have started to do in search of life and intelligence in space, and now they will not stop until they find them.