Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Diet analysis Essay

At a young age, I had always had an aggressive appetite, never caring about what I put into my body because I was young, and it was of no concern to me. Over the last 5 years, I have been more aware of my eating habits, but still not making a conscious effort to change what my body intakes. Throughout, My Diet Analysis research, I was able to identify eating habits that I was unaware of specifically during the weekdays. I decided to record two of my busiest days during the week, Monday and Tuesday and one lacks day, being Sunday. My findings were somewhat surprising, showing me on paper just exactly how unhealthy my eating habits are. My diet analysis gave me just the motivation I needed to fully make a change within my everyday diet. Overall, it is very clear that I need to make some changes within my diet on a daily basis in order become fit and healthy. My results from my 3 day recall shocked me slightly, because I didn’t realize how little I ate, but how unhealthy many of my food choices were. I wasn’t in range with my calorie intake for the 3 days. My calorie intake was over 1500, and my recommended calorie intake was a little over 1200. The foods I ate that consisted of the most calories were foods from fast food restaurants, mainly being McDonalds, and foods that were full of carbs. I generally eat a lot of fast food during the week because my schedule is so hectic and nonstop, I don’t have time to indulge in anything else. My calorie intake was higher on Sunday and Tuesday than it was on Monday. My overall calorie intake on Monday was 100.1, Tuesday it was 2312.7 and on Sunday 1258.7. I was a little surprised to see that my calorie intake on Monday was lower than on Sunday, but after reviewing the foods I consumed, it made sense. Out of the 3 days, Monday was the day I consumed the most vegetables, green tea, and water. I typically drink a lot of water and green tea every day, so that wasn’t a surprise, but according to my di et analysis my vegetable intake for Monday was excellent. My vegetable intake is usually higher on Sundays because my mother usually cooks, and makes at least two green vegetables for that particular meal. As I continued to review my diet analysis I noticed I barely ate any fruits, which was very clear to see considering over the 3 days I had only eaten chunked pineapples, and the fruit that was in a smoothie. According to the USDA dietary guidelines my fruit intake should be at least 33% a day. It’s obvious that I need to substitute snacks, such as cookies, and chips for an apple or a fruit cup every day to meet my fruit  requirement. I wasn’t too surprised to find that my fruit intake was low because I don’t tend to eat fruit on a daily basis. I would defiantly say I indulge more vegetables than I do fruits, and that probably won’t change too much when it comes to my diet. Even though I’m aware that I have a slight addiction to salt and salty foods I was still disgusted at my sodium intake. My average sodium intake came out to be 12263.4 over the 3days. I am now more than ever motivated to stop adding salt to everything I eat because not only is it a bad habit, but it can do much damage to my body in the long run . Along with having a high sodium intake, my Trans and saturated fat intake was high. Trans fat is something I never want in my system, but consuming fast food doesn’t necessarily help me met this goal. My average intake of saturated fat over the 3 days was 13.7 and my overall trans-fat intake was 1.5. Although my trans-fat intake wasn’t exceeding, it’s not something I want to ingest/digest even in small amounts. I typically drink a lot of water, but according to my diet analysis, I need to be drinking twice as much as I consume. I don’t drink sodas or juice at all, so my beverage intake only consists of wate r and green tea; so seeing that I still need to consume more water was shocking. My average intake over the 3 days was 1,607.19 and I need my recommended number is 2,700.00. This will probably be one of the easier changes to make because I don’t mind drinking water, and prefer to drink water over any other beverage. I believe if I become more active this will help me consume more water throughout the day. Drinking the recommended amount of water every day is important to me because water helps your body work to its greatest potential, and helps with skin, hair and nails. I usually find myself exhausted and extremely tired throughout the day, and never really knowing why or exactly how to change that aspect of my life. When reviewing my Vitamin intake, it all began to make sense. My Vitamin levels are very low, especially my Vitamin D level, which goes hand in hand with my energy; explaining why I’m always tired. My Vitamin D intake was 1.13 which is extremely low compared to my recommended amount, which was 15.00. In order to help increase my vitamin D level, I have to first research which foods have a high level of vitamin D. I do recall when I was 18 my doctor explaining to me that my Vitamin D level was low, but seeing it makes it much more real. The weather has an effect on my Vitamin D level being low as well. The sun is a great source of Vitamin D, but because it’s  winter my exposure to sun is limited. Milk also has a great amount of Vitamin D, but unfortunately I am lactose and tolerant, which probably has a great effect on my Vitamin D level. It would be in my best interest to consume Vitamin D supplements to help increase my Vitamin D levels efficiently. I currently do no t exercise as often as I should considering the foods that I eat on a daily basis. I do however; have a job that consists of being active with children three time out of the week, which is a nice benefit. Once the spring is here it would be in my best interest to go running every day for at least 30 minutes. This will help with my physical activity and sun exposure, helping with my Vitamin D levels. I would like to continue to monitor my eating habits using my diet analysis because I do believe it is hard to determine my eating habits with only analyzing 3 days. But it is still very evident that I need to make some changes. The Diet Analysis project has taught me a lot about my own eating habits and has inspired me to modify them for a healthier lifestyle. Probably the biggest change I will make after having done this project is to increase my intake of vegetables, fruits and Vitamin D. Fruits and vegetables will provide more fiber in my diet (something I am lacking) as well as cert ain other vitamins and minerals that I am deficient in. I will also try to limit my fat intake, especially saturated fats, trans-fats, and fats from animal sources. I may even start packing my own lunches since most of the flaws in my diet are from of convenient and fast foods.

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Young People in Society

Explain how political, economic and social constructs can be used to categories society. Look at how Irish society stratifies according to social class and gender. Sociologists develop theories and concepts to help reveal the structure of social life and they engage in numerous different forms of empirical Investigation to test and develop these theories. They are Interested In how people communicate and create meaning and understanding, but they are also interested in questions of power and inequality.They use a variety of sources such as historical documents, observations, river research to help develop reliable information about how society operates. Define social stratification Social stratification is a system where people are ranked hierarchically which leads to groups of people being classified into layers and strata (class, caste, slavery and estate).Class – social class system Is a system of stratification that results from unequal distribution of wealth, power and pr estige. Caste -? this is a fixed arrangement of strata from the most to the least privileged. Estate – this consist three different strata or layers – aristocracy, clergy and commoners. Slavery – this is the oldest and most extreme form of stratification or inequality in which some people are literally owned by others as property.All social stratification systems share four basic principles each reflecting how these systems cause inequalities based on class, gender, ethnicity, age, religious affiliation and consequences at an Individual and at a collective level In society, no one social stratification system Is unique, each system Is a characteristic of the society It relates to and it is not simply a reflection of differences at an individual level, nor is it a new incept as afore mentioned but it is a system that has and will persist over generations and although stratification systems may not be an exact replica In each society, fundamentally stratification systems are universal albeit widely variable, they also incorporate ideological beliefs while also engendering shared identities (Macaroni et a', 2005). Do all societies stratify? If so, in what way? Virtually all societies have some form of stratification or structured inequalities that are organized and that persist over time. It Is universal but variable and seems to be found everywhere. At the same time, what is unequal and how unequal it is varies from one society to another.For example, I) Social stratification persist over generation – in all societies, parents confer their social positions on their children, so that patterns of inequality stay much the same from generation to generation. (Monoclonal et a', 2005). II) Some Individuals do also experience social mobility -? It may be downward or upward. Society celebrate the achievements of those who rose to people are regarded as more important than others, more worthy of respect or seen as more useful than others in ce rtain situations. It is also evident that people could move downward as a result of illness, unemployment, economic break-down, business setback etc.However, social standing of most people remain unchanged for a life time – like the Royal Family in England. What system of stratification is in operation in Ireland? Is it an open or close system of stratification? The social stratification in Ireland today is undefined. However, the class system seem to be in operation in Ireland and it is considered a close system. A closed system does not afford a person the same opportunity, and as a result a person's position in fife is solely determined by the family group they are born into. Identity and belonging dominate the social class in modern Ireland. This can be to the majority of people defined by two categories: the first being wealth (Middle class).If you are wealthy you have a lot more opportunities in education, professionals or higher managerial e. G. Senior government worke rs, doctors, farmers, company directors etc. And; secondly being poor (Lower class). – these are people in lower scale in the society e. G. School teachers, driver, machine operator, bar-worker waitress, cleaner, call- centre worker etc. The rate of lower class status rocketed since recession. (Hyde et al, 2007:65-66) Describe the system of stratification found in Ireland. How is it broken down? (include tables and diagrams here if relevant) During the Celtic Tiger it was perceived that Ireland as a whole was very wealthy and many people were classed as Wealthy or ‘upper class'.However since the recession hit the social status regarding the wealth of the country has deteriorated. Today, a larger number of the population are working or middle class. The growing unemployment rate has forced many people, including well educated individuals to rely on state benefits. This has been a huge factor in the rapid decrease in the social status of the country. Social mobility in Ir eland appears to be going in the wrong direction. Not only is the social stratification in Ireland defined by its economic status, but also by a number of other factors; for example; a person's religion. In the past the influence the Catholic Church had on people determined the way they lived there life.Catholic priests were understood to be very well respected figures in society and anyone of the catholic religion were accepted as part of the community however individuals of a different faith were viewed as outsiders. Nowadays a person's faith does not have as big an influence on their social status and many people from different religious backgrounds are accepted in Irish communities. Does class/socio- economic position, impact on your health? Please provide evidence, statistics to There are differences among people in the amount of access they have to the resources of wealth and prestige in most societies. Such differences among people in terms of income and status are usually re ferred to as social class differences. The categories that people have been assigned to by virtue of their occupation have been marred with patterns of illness in society.The lower your place in the social class scale, the worse is likely to be your health status and visa-versa (Hyde et al, 2007). Although race, gender, age etc have influenced socio-economic status, classification by occupation tends to be more common; hence in Ireland, a person's social class is measured according to his or her occupation while social class of children is determined by parents' occupation (Denote and Cannon, 2003). According to Denote and Cannon, there are huge inequalities between the classes in the distribution of wealth in the country. It is estimated that 10 per cent of the population own nearly half the wealth in the country, therefore 90 per cent of the population share the other half, but not equally. Ibid:71 in McDonald B, 2009) Health inequalities are often observed along a social rise. Th is means that the more favorable your social circumstances such as income or education, the better your chance of enjoying good health and a longer life. While there is a significant gap between the wealthy and the poor, the relationship between social circumstances in health is in fact a graded one. Source of data ‘Inequalities in Mortality 1989-1998' A series of studies by the Institute of Public Health in Ireland (PIP) found that the number of people living with a chronic condition is expected to increase dramatically by 2020 and that disproportionately more of these people will belong to the older population.

Monday, July 29, 2019

Make any topic pls Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Make any topic pls - Essay Example In this post modern time, when one is showing his discomfort in news of Taliban’s imposed restrictions on girls in Afghanistan, no one expects even something least to happen in a country like US, a proclaimed leader of democracy. Despite of difference in gender, the uniqueness stands above. We all are born as human beings notwithstanding the sex. The difference is for the totality of human being. It should not be a measure in rewarding rights. The qualities of both male and fair sex may vary but none stands ahead. Both are the best in their own. The women in this egalitarian period of time have come up to forefront standing along with their male counterparts in almost all the fields. They have shared better parts in most adventurous and risky situations from combat war field to a journey to the space. Nothing holds the modern girl from involving into what a decade back thought to be unattainable by fair sex. A fair number of countries came up with a decision to include women in the armed forces across the world. And given the chances, they have proved their ability to achieve nothing lesser to their male counterparts could

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Peregrine Trucking Co Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words - 1

Peregrine Trucking Co - Research Paper Example Organizations are facing frequent challenges to find out ways to minimize the operating cost and to increase equipment capacity. Many variables are continuously increasing, mostly the fuel prices are rising daily and it leads to a rise in the material costs. In response to cost minimization, the business universe has started reengineering their business process. The scarce energy sources are consumed by transportation industry. The Peregrine Trucking Company is formulating a strategic plan for reduction of the fuel price by using a variety of effective and socially aware trucking equipment’s. This study discusses various methodologies to reduce the fuel consumption of Peregrine Transportation Company (Schafer, F. & Basshuysen, 1995). From last two decades the transportation companies have become intensely competitive. Freight transport demand has grown rapidly and will grow further as the economies recover from the current economic instability. The increased demand of freight transport facilities has putted an excess pressure on the transport network capacity. The enhanced consciousness about the safety and environmental issues also encouraged the truck companies to innovate socially acceptable methods for cost reduction. Discussion Now days, a person realizes that the resources are not limited and there are alternatives for the scarce resources. There are several ways to eliminate the fuel costs. Some of the simplest ways are as follows: It is advised to eliminate all useless weights from the vehicle. It is suggested to buy gasoline in the morning when, generally the temperature is cold. It is advised to formulate an effective routing plan for entire day. For saving the fuel consumption, first task is to check the air filter. Checking of air filter takes a few minutes. One has to remove the filter and has to boost the light; if the light does not pass, the filter should be replaced. Another option is to use the motor oil’s â€Å"lungs† wit h less thick synthetic or semi synthetic base. Compared with the traditional mode viscous â€Å"mineral water†, they have almost 6% lower fuel consumption. Checking the pressure of tire is another way to reduce fuel. Presence of the weak slopes increases the rolling struggle and that is the reason, the fuel consumption increases. The truck should maintain a constant speed even in the jam also. In the rush hours trucks starts hastily and suddenly slow down. This would increase the fuel cost. Careful use of gas pedals can surely decrease the fuel cost. It is advisable not to use the high gear when the vehicle is in low speed. It is important to brake properly that would also help to reduce the fuel consumption. Air conditioning consumes 5% to 20% of fuel. Avoiding air conditioner sometimes helps the vehicle to reduce fuel consumption. Maintaining

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Procter&gamble company Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Procter&gamble company - Term Paper Example These units include Global Beauty, Global Baby, feminine and Family Care, Global Fabric and Home Care, and Global Health and Grooming. All these units focus on common consumer benefits, common technologies and face common competitors. The company has invested $9.7 billion in 2013 and is consistently one of the world’s top advertisers. Sports sponsorship is very popular with P&G while they also engage in social responsibility in various ways. One of the ways that P&G tries to bring the comforts of home to families impacted by natural disasters is by responding to disasters all over the world through product and cash donations. On October 30, 2013, P&G news release states that the company has expanded its partnership with American Red Cross by joining the Disaster Responder Program to support Red Cross Disaster response work worldwide. This represents a milestone in P&G’s commitment to bring relief to the disaster-stricken. In the past decade P&G has created programs like Tide Loads of Hope and Duracell Power aimed at bringing clean clothes, batteries and power to families recovering from disasters. They know some of their products can bring immediate relief and hence P&G employees pack kits containing P&G brands such as Secret, Gillette, Crest, Ivory and Lams, which are then distributed after the disaster through mobile relief units. Their partnership with American Red Cross ensures the victims receive immediate care in critical moments after the disaster. Brands such as Pampers, Crest and Tide help in rebuilding their lives with the dignity that comes with clean clothes. P&G has worked in partnership with American Red Cross for disasters like Oklahoma Tornadoes, Hurricane Isaac and Superstorm Sandy. P&G engages in corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities in other ways. On October 10, 2013, P&G announced that some of its brands such as Duracell, Tide and Secret had underwritten all their production costs for the Nyad Swim for Relief. To sup port Hurricane Sandy recovery efforts, long-distance swim legend, Diana Nyad organized 48-hour â€Å"Swim for Relief† in New York City’s Herald Square. The funds would be donated to AmeriCares, a non-profit global health and disaster relief organization that delivers medicines, medical supplies and medical aid to people in need across the world, including the United States. Established in 1982, AmeriCares has distributed humanitarian aid worth more than $11 billion across 164 countries. Hurricane Sandy had destroyed nearly 125,000 homes in New Jersey alone and caused an approximate damage of $70 billion across the eastern seaboard. Yet another way that P&G demonstrates its responsibility towards the society is by extending educational scholarships to students committed to improving oral health of the Hispanic community. On September 26, 2013, P&G Hispanic Dental Association Foundation (HDAF) announced recipients of their annual scholarship program. These scholarships w ere awarded to 16 entry-level US Hispanic students that have been accepted into any accredited dental program. The awardees were based on their scholastic achievement, community service, leadership skills and commitment to improve health in the Hispanic community. Apart from providing scholarships to the next generation Hispanic Dental students, P&G and HDAF have also taken up the responsibility to correct misperceptions the US

Friday, July 26, 2019

Summary 1 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 3

Summary 1 - Essay Example Theologians reflect upon this new truth, which is full of promise. Liberation sets free the children of God from the slavery. Slavery comes in different kinds of form, which include sin, economic, socio-political, and cultural. Liberation serves all those who respond to it, as it is not limited to those only with the evangelical spirit. It serves all those Christians who have clarity in faith and are prepared to be involved in struggles for humanity and freedom for the poor in the society. Liberation inspires people particularly those who have misery burdens carried in their hearts. It is a human need to express this aspiration. There is need to guide and clarify the yearning for the aspiration. Liberation theology was born from this strong aspiration. It expresses concern for the victimized and poor in the society. Theologies of liberation expresses different and diverse positions that seek to explain the contradictions involved in finding the meaning poverty and commitment to justice as defined by Christianity. Recently, Pope Francis has stressed the importance of fast tracking of a former Salvadoran Archbishop’s beatification. Oscar Romero’s beatification is a legitimate to sainthood for a man who is considered the unofficial saint of the controversial Catholic movement, liberation theology. The movement whose origin is in Latin America embraces the perspective and plight of the poor to interpret scripture and fight both economic and political injustices. The beatification statement made by Pope Francis is viewed as an attempt to reconciliation between the mainstream Catholic Church and the liberation theology movement. Other occurrences that inform about the possibility of the reconciliation include the reinstatement of suspended Nicaraguan priest Miguel D’Escoto, a policy reversal in Chiapas allowing the ordainment of indigenous deacons, and the appointment of Gerhard MÃ ¼ller, a former

Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Emissions Permit System Essay - 1

Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Emissions Permit System - Essay Example A broad spectrum of concerned individuals and corporations are in agreement over one basic fact: a price-tagged emission of global-warming greenhouse gases is an idea whose time is ripe. Whether not available for now, legal, binding pricing mechanism on the use of traditional fossil fuels seems all but inevitable in the 21st century. Nevertheless, pricing carbon emissions remain in dispute among policymakers and academics voicing backing to the old command controls. Evidently, nations only possess limited experience with the cap-and-trade system in controlling greenhouse emissions. This paper endeavors to highlight the intrinsic worth and costs of implementing a cap and trade policy in pollution abatement. Emission trading permits with a pricing scheme on carbon usually strives to achieve two interrelated but beneficial ends: discouraging— with increasingly inhibitive economic costs — the use of traditional sources of energy such as oil, natural gas and coal, to inspire the development of innovative renewable sources of energy that are less costly to the environment (Wills, 2006). Cap-and-trade policy instruments place progressive harsher limits on the usage of fossil fuels by conditioning pollution limits from industrial power plants among other major emitters of greenhouse gases through licensing. Extra emissions above the prescribed limits are surcharged prohibitively. In contrast to the traditionally regulatory command models that were rather rigid with regards to the requirements specified outcomes irrespective of the costs incurred, the prohibitive costs in cap and trade systems provide the needed incentives to either shift to the best alternative sources or to make more than necessary steps for compliance.

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Prepare Semi-Structured questions for interviews and questioners Essay

Prepare Semi-Structured questions for interviews and questioners - Essay Example For example, for projects like infrastructure and construction (say electricity transmission, Roads development, Buildings Construction etc.) are there very specific factors that developers have to look out for to ensure that there are no delays? 10. What you say in the response to the above about the importance of planning stage†¦is it equally true for different types of large projects. From construction to infrastructure, does your opinion about the importance of the planning stage applies to all types of large projects? 16. Can you think of some reasons why planning stage errors – like incorrect assessment of risks, uncertainties and probabilities occur? Is it because of the assessment tools and risk assessment models that are used in Qatar? 17. Are the above difficulties – in calculating risks and uncertainties and assigning probabilities – further complicated by the State of Qatar’s unique geographic, socio-cultural and historical issues? 18. Do you think that one of the other factors that can be assigned with causing project delays is of Budget? Does lack of accurate budget estimation in the planning stage lead to the delays in the project completion? 20. Do you think that delays at the execution phases of the project (monitoring, control and closure) are specific to tactical planning and execution failures? Or are these just a manifestation of the incorrect planning at the initiation and designing stage? 22. Can some of the delays at the planning stage be attributed to an inadequate choice of project management structure and style? Please elaborate on what are the most suitable project management structures to use in large scale projects, especially in the context of Qatar. 23. Do you think that one of the reasons for disruption and delays are the lack of consensus among the numerous stakeholders on the budget, perception of risk and end objectives of the large scale projects? How does this play out in the context of the State

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Drama Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Drama - Essay Example n July 25, 2014, and it expanded to become a box office success grossing over $458 million against a budget of $40 million thus becoming an instant success. The film gained positive as well as polarized critical reviews with a lot of praise given to Johansson for her outstanding performance, entertaining or intriguing themes and visuals. It received criticism for having a nonsensical plot, especially its focus on the ten percent of brain myth and resulting abilities. As the main character, Lucy stands out to be the sole protagonist who is surrounded by several antagonists who are after her life due to the drugs. The film depicts Lucy who is a 25-year old America women pursuing her studies in Taipei. Her boyfriend soon tricks her into working as a drug mule. Her first mission is to deliver a briefcase to Mr. Jang that has a highly valuable drug. Her boyfriend gets killed and a bag of drugs is forcibly sewn into her abdomen for transportation to Europe. One of the captors accidently kicks her abdomen thus releasing large amount of drugs into her systems. As a result, she acquires rapidly enhanced physical and mental capabilities, such as telepathy, telekinesis, mental time travel, and she can choose not to feel pain or other discomforts, in addition to other abilities. She kills off her captors and manages to get away. She then travels moves to the nearest hospital to have the bag removed from her abdomen and the doctor informs her of her new abilities due to the effects of the drugs. Upon knowing her unique abilities, Lucy returns to Mr. Jangs hotel, kills his bodyguards, assaults Mr. Jang, and telepathically extracts the locations of all three drug mules from his brain. At her apartment, she engages in a series of research in order to know the solution for her condition. She comes across Professor Samuel Norman who gives her the detailed information about her condition. Then she moves to Paris where she seeks help from Captain Pierrer Del Rio to assist her in

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Compliance in Marketing Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Compliance in Marketing - Essay Example In such business interrelations, customers are required to act according to the regulations given by a service provider. In this business service providers and customers do not meet face to face and they, therefore, interact actively or passively through media. Examples of such businesses include education, banking services, health services like weight losses rules among others. In this kind of business interactions, lack of customers to adhere to regulations means failure. This business innovation has been faced with criticism by various individuals. There are issues that rise up concerning methods of sampling, data collections, and analysis. While some scholars agree with these methods, some others do not agree with them. Works done by Dellande and Nyer; Dellande; Gilly and Graham as well as the work of Kasabov and Warlow are examples of some works that have published about Customer Compliance Business Methods (CCBM). Analysis of these works reveals different issues of concern abou t methods of data sampling, data collection and analysis. In this work, I will review articles by the above authors to show strengths and weaknesses of their methods of data acquisition, synthesis and presentation. Part 2 Critical Evaluation of Articles Research work is considered well done when it ensures validity and reliability. Data also should be collected within ethical bounds. This means that it would be important to put into consideration values of the people studied (Al-Aidaros, Idris, and Shamsudin, 2011). Automated Marketing and the Growth of ‘Customer Compliance’ Businesses by Kasabov and Warlow In this article, the author presents a study of Customer Compliance Model in which he argues that members of the society are expected to receive services without question. In that way, this article does not offer a chance for a customer to suggest anything about a service they receive. This article presents a kind of service delivery that is totally automated (Kasabo v and Warlow, 2009, p.31-32). As a method of data collection, this is not viable because of dynamics that are represented by different people. This method lacks the ability to handle broad problem area. This is an aspect that any research should represent for problem solving (Nouri, n.d, p.7). Access of information presented during service delivery cannot be well sampled because the method does not offer any chance of study of distribution. To be able to sample, direct contact is essential (Business Conduct, 2012). Less people are able to access automated data that would reduce reliability of data, which may by any means be obtained in a research of this nature. Automation of service makes it difficult for sampling (Greener, 2008, p.47). In giving analysis of information obtained in an automated service delivery, as advanced by Kasabov and Warlow, there are possibilities of biases. This is because some of the data obtained cannot be validated because it is based on poorly sampled so urces. It makes it difficult to generalise information. This method does not give a careful consideration of ethics. First, because service providers do not request customers to respond to services provided using their views. Second, because service providers always implement their innovation without considering the views of customers (Bryman and Bell, 2007, p.143). Gaining Compliance and Losing Weight: The Role of the Service Provider in Health Care Services by Stephanie Dellande, Mary C. Gilly, and John L. Graham This article describes a research that was done through use of questionnaires, direct participation, analysis of secondary sources of data and in-depth interviews. These were used as methods of data

Monday, July 22, 2019

Importance of Internal Communications Essay Example for Free

Importance of Internal Communications Essay Importance of Internal Communications for a company and two case studies. Internal communications is considered a vital tool for connecting people within the company. It does not refer only to those few â€Å"official† channels of communication in a company, it is also the strategic management of information flows to ensure the optima level of employee engagement. (Civicus, 2001) This business context of communication is a dual listening process. It is a top-down, bottom-up, side-to-side communication harnessed as a means of delivering messages, listening to concerns and motivating staff. Maintaining a good internal communications within a company could reinforce the vision, values and culture among employees, who can then communicate it to internal and external audiences. Internal communications aims to ensure that employees in the company work together towards the same goal, know what they should be doing and by when. Internal communication has evolved various ways of communicating internally. Traditionally, it started off with informal and formal one-to-one and one-to-many meetings where usually the ‘the boss’ would communicate in a highly one-way fashion with employees. Lee, 2006) In this case the message is mostly communicated in one way, it does not include feedback from the message recipients. When print materials were introduced, it was then involved for formal, top-down transmission, for instance, company annual report. Internal communication then evolved to the digital era where Internet was highly used as a communication tool. When email was in troduced into the business settings and with it the nature of communication has radically changed. Lee, 2006) As the digital technology advances, internal communication has evolved to the point where not only can employees and employers freely email each other, forward messages without any editing (showing the whole conversational trail), and forward those messages outside of the corporate walls, but also employees and employers can use these emails to bring about grievance procedures, litigation and dismissal. (Lee, 2006) It is seen that internal communication has undergone deliberately change and will continue growing. Today’s internal communication practitioner is focused on challenging and stimulating employees, managing change and gaining employee engagement and commitment. (Chalmers, 2008) The aim has moved from controlling and directing people, through providing information, making announcements and supporting industrial relations, to supporting the development of a flexible work environment which adapts to change, seeks improvement, shares knowledge and know-how, generates ideas and involves people in achieving strategic goals. Chalmers, 2008) Most of the people understand the significance of internal communication but very few could manage it efficiently. Many people think that internal communication is one of the functions that they think they can do well. In fact, when it comes to real situation on handling employees, certain strategies and techniques are needed to communicate and tackle. In talking to many individuals at very different levels in very disparate sectors, what has come across as crucial is the need for internal communication to be championed at the very top of the organization and also for senior management and the boardroom to respect the expertise of the specialist tasked to deliver, be they internally or externally placed. Smith, 2008) A large number of studies by both professional management groups and professional communications bodies consistently find that ‘communicating with employees’ is a useful and powerful way of engendering greater ‘engagement’ – the propensity of the employee to want to come to work and want to contribute to the success of the company. (Lee, 2006) Gauri Deshmukh, head of HR at SAS India states that internal communication is important for a company as it provides information and encourages sharing by driving and supporting the organisation’s short-term and long-term goals and objectiv es. In addition, Deshmukh also mentions that with effective internal communications, it ensures that knowledge-sharing and communication processes are part of the daily workflow across all functions of the business. By having good internal communication, a company ensures that in between employers and employees they are constantly updated with information. In fact, a good internal communications not only affects organizational and operational success, but it has a considerable impact on external functions such as marketing, community and government relations, nd investor relations. (Brown, 2002) Internal communication is significant in any company because it is the building block of the organisational culture. (Civicus, 2001) Furthermore, internal communication is important so that employees become advocates for company. It is important to create a ‘common purpose’ across the company – creating the sense of a team where everyone feels ownership in their roles and in a chieving the company’s goals. (WK, 2010) In this way employees feel accepted and being part of the company. Likewise, internal communication is one of the key ‘intangible’ factors leading to high performance. (WK, 2010) For instance, if communication in a company is managed well employees are more confident and clear with the company mission and vision thus makes excellent financial as well as business. Not only that, having good internal communication helps build out company’s brand internally as employees are the best ambassadors, and internal perceptions should mirror what the company is telling the world. Trout, 2012) When the company is communicating effectively with its internal stakeholders, be it employees, management or volunteers, programmes and departments share more resources and information resulting in less duplication of work and stronger impact as a whole company. (Civicus, 2001) Without an effective internal communications, a company allows others to determine what information (or disinformation) is communicated to employees about their company. Brown, 2002) Smart employers realize that in environments where employees are able to move from one employer to another with relative ease, it is in the company’s best interests to retain the smarter and more productive employees; doing all they can to communicate with them, inform them, influence them and enter into some sort of psychological contract with them is a wise move. Lee, 2006) Besides, without effective internal communications, the crisis of confidence in businesses and corporate leadership could hurt sincere efforts to build a positive corporate culture and to enhance employee morale and productivity, and devastate the overall image of an organization. (Brown, 2002) Case Study I: Nokia is one of the top mobile phone manufacturer favoured by many people. In order to compete with other mobile phone manufacturer Nokia is constantly improvising and upgrading their gadgets to serve people needs these days. The reason Nokia has been so successful is no doubt its creation on mobile phones, as well as the strong team in the company that has made where it stands today. In a technologically savvy company like Nokia, it’s no surprise that they’ve been successfully implementing social media into their internal communications. (Kass, 2012) Nokia’s motto is connecting people and exploring ways to enhance communication. (Kass, 2012) In order to realize that vision, Nokia uses a number of different vehicles for two-way and push or pull communications; social media plays a big part with fitting into that strategy. Nokia’s Social Media Communications team was established in early 2008, aimed to improve inter-company communications and engaging employees. The objective of the team is to: encourage the use of social media internally to bring out the company’s unique authentic voice and to engage in social media externally on behalf of Nokia, and contributing to product and service announcements by opening up a dialogue and driving online engagement. (Kass, 2012) Nokia has 125,000 employees around the world. It is the company’s utmost important task to engage all employees in order to achieve company business goal. There are a few platforms in Nokia allowing employees from global to connect as if they work in a small company together. According to Molly Schonthal who worked on the companys Social Media team in North America, the BlogHub is Nokia’s most powerful and effective social media tool that is used internally. It has been said that BlogHub lowers the barriers for employees to find conversations relevant to them. In terms of interaction, employees are allowed to communicate freely via BlogHub. They could make comment on posts, share ideas and knowledge on issues that have been mentioned. In addition, BlogHub serves as a useful search engine for employees to seek out information relevant to them. From a management point of view, through BlogHub feedback on various issues are gained quickly and track the conversations that are happening inside the company. Voting and ratings on posts are enabled as well for employees to be part of the decision team. Nokia has also introduced Nokia Conversations blog where latest Nokia product news would be posted. Through this blog employees could find a big overview of all the topics going on in Nokia. Similar to any other company that is engaged on social media, Nokia has its very own YouTube and Twitter account. Other than that, VideoHub has grown increasingly popular with employees allowing for postings to be updated on a daily basis. Besides, Nokia’s Infopedia wiki allows employees to share knowledge inside the company. If someone needs to quickly check a piece of information, Nokia’s effective internal communication channel, Instant Messaging (IM) is available for employees. It claims to remove the barrier of more formalized communication in between employees. For global company like Nokia, in order to save cost and time, Nokia has it’s own video conference channel where annual communication meetings and real time conversations could be held. Considering people do not check their mailboxes as much anymore Nokia has slowly cut down prints publications in an effort to become more environmentally aware. In fact Nokia in North America has completely eliminated print publications. Newsletters are now kept to an electronic HTML format, which is e-mail so it is more easily distributed. Similar to every other company Nokia uses intranet communications as well. It is the center of where people go to get information on benefits or organization charts. Furthermore, to reach more employees, Nokia regularly posts relevant company announcements on plasma screens around regional offices, usually in cafeterias and breakout rooms, with its promise on going environmental friendly. At North America, leadership also encourages employees to speak directly with their line managers to better understand organizational strategy and what role they can play in that strategy. For all of Nokia’s Web 2. 0 tools, Schonthal is quick to point out that â€Å"social media is never a replacement for high touch engagement. † (Kass, 2012) Instead, it can contribute to various company events and other in-person initiatives. â€Å"Social media complements these things but doesn’t take away from the ability to internally engage and share ideas,† she further explains. Nokia provides many platforms for employees to stay engaged, all for one clear identified goal – connect all the people in the company. For such global company I believe Nokia in different countries or branches could decide on which channel they prefer but I believe as a whole, all the employees in Nokia stay connected via BlogHub. After reviewing how Nokia strives to engage the employees I could see that the management team work hard on receiving feedback as well. They listen to their employees. They make changes. All these actions give employees feel accepted and belonged to the company. The end result is the employees are clear with the goals, mission and procedures of the company, which can result increase their work effort and efficiency and boost business. Case Study II: â€Å"We were driven to connect the organization with itself, and realized enterprise social networking was the solution. I can truly say after more than two years that we have achieved an official internal communications channel. Socialcast lifted the boundaries and made our organization transparent. We connect daily with people from India, China, the US, and Brazil. Without Socialcast it would not be possible,† says Dennis Agusi, Global Internal Communications Officer, Royal Philips Electronics. Royal Philips Electronics of the Netherlands is a diversified health and well-being company, focused on improving people’s lives through timely innovations. As a world leader in healthcare, lifestyle and lighting, Philips integrates technologies and design into people-centric solutions, based on fundamental customer insights and the brand promise of â€Å"sense and simplicity†. Philips Case Study 2012) In 2010, Philips began to explore how the company should help its employees spread around the globe to feel engaged, work like a small team driven by shared goals. On the way of researching, the Corporate Communications and IT department discovered that approximately 1,600 employees were actively using a free tool they had found on the Internet to communicate and collab orate. Knowing two platforms for collaboration would not be a great idea so the team took initiative to introduce a new platform to these early users. These early users provided positive and valuable feedback and recommendations on how to improve the enterprise social experience the best it could be. Then it led to a successful launch of an enterprise social network. The company adopted â€Å"Connect Us† and the network was launched with wide support. On launch day, Connect Us had 400 members. Within two months, 7,000 employees had joined the community. Through Connect Us they allow employee-to-employee exchanges as well as management-to-employee communications. Employees are allowed to post freely, share knowledge to make work easier. Connect Us helps to remove barriers between departments as well. Through Socialcast Reach, employees are allowed to share information and data in between departments resulting a more seamless flow of work. In addition, a new idea can be communicated more broadly, increasing sense of connectedness and engagement across the company. From management perspective, through Connect Us, the Communications and IT team could monitor what’s happening in the company, check trending topics or people, at real time. According to report, Connect Us has enabled new and sometimes unexpected forms of employee engagement. All Employee Jam† was a crowdsourcing project designed to bring to life the company’s new, refreshed Mission and Vision statement through dialogue, discussion and debate. This exercise has successfully drawn employees who had not yet joined the social community into Connect Us. According to feedback, employees who participated in this exercise were found to be far m ore aware of and aligned with the Philips Mission and Vision than those employees who did not participate. This resulted Philips truly believes that enterprise social networks help companies increase employee engagement and retention. I liked the idea of how Philips tries to maintain the communication channel as one, which is Connect Us. I believe there are other platforms available for instance intranet but Connect Us is actively used by people in the company. From not knowing employees are using free online tool to communicate to introducing socialcast network, Philips has come a long way into realizing the importance of internal communication. The All Employee Jam has definitely demonstrated the power of enterprised social networking. It encouraged the employees to share knowledge, to stay connected which resulted in a greater identity with the company. In this two case studies, both companies Nokia and Philips selected appropriate channels for communication according to its needs. Nokia has different communication platforms serving different purposes. For instance, BlogHub allows employees to find information they need and Instant Messaging is a tool for quick and easy communication. On the other hand, Philips focus mainly on Connect Us, from searching information to accelerating ideas to sharing data it is all done on Connect Us. However, on my opinion, Nokia has too many platforms it might be tough to engage all the employees in one platform, as the users are free to choose which platforms they get information from. Whereas Philips uses Connect Us, most of the employees are part of the community and anything they need require can be found on Connect Us. I think this is one of the advantages of having a focused channel. Likewise, the tools and tactics, both companies chose to be focus more on information technology. In terms of interactivity, both companies engage their employees as well as welcoming their feedbacks. The employees are encouraged to utilise these channels to feel more accepted and being part of the company. For instance, Philips Connect Us not only allows employees-to-employees exchange, as well as management-to-employees communication. In this case it removes barriers between management and employees so work can be done easier. As for Nokia, feedbacks are valued through voting and ratings on posts and comments, allowing management to understand the employees better. Besides, both case studies reviewed the importance of evaluation on internal communication. In order to improve, the management team has to constantly measure the effectiveness of the communication tools and find ways to improve. Nokia and Philips monitor their employees through these platforms to find out what is really happening in the company. This way they could make sure the employees are on par with company’s goals. In conclusion, internal communication has never been so important. Many people know what internal communication is and they think they know how to function this but they might not know the true meaning behind it. Effective internal communication does not mean to have a lot of communication platforms, spending big budget on this function but utilizing the appropriate communication tool for employees get involved. If you want to build brand for your company first you have to build your brand internally. After all employees are the representatives of your company, they are the brand. Internal communication comes a long way to build, it might need more time and effort to achieve the effective result as desired but the end result is always proven satisfaction, that I am sure. A combination of strong communication, teamwork and camaraderie framed within trusting relationships will help achieve remarkable results in times of large-scale change and uncertainty, writes University of Nottingham chief executive Peter Homa. And finally, in my own words, you cant communicate with your audience until your internal message is crystal clear.

Definition and determinants of price elasticity

Definition and determinants of price elasticity Definition of price elasticity (PES) to supply refers to a measurement of relationship between change in quantity supplied and a change in price. There is a few determinants that affects the outcome of the PES. One of the determinants is time period. Supply will be more elastic when time given to a company to change its adjustment is more. In short run, the time given to firms and companies are too short to adjust or change and adapt. For example, Sammys burger face a shortage of beef meat as raw material. It is inelastic if the time period is limited to a few hours only. The price of the burger might increase but the there is simple no other methods to help Sammy. In long run, time given to firms and producers are long enough to adjust their firm size and prepare for firms to enter or leave. In this way, Sammy would have enough time to search for alternate way for new resources. Another determinant is resource substitution possibilities, which means some goods or product that can only be produced or made by using special technique or limited resources. These products have a very low elasticity of supply or maybe zero. However goods which are commonly produced that could be simply found have a relatively high elasticity of supply. Example, Louis Vuitton handbags are all handmade from genuine leather, hence there are less products that may substitute it. The PES of Louis Vuitton is much more inelastic. Question 2B Price Businesses can use the concept price elasticity to decide their pricing strategy by determining whether the good to be sold is inelastic, elastic, unitary, perfectly inelastic, and perfectly elastic. If the price elasticity is inelastic it shows that the percentage change in quantity demanded is less than the percentage change in price. For example, good A is given a discount of 10%, but quantity demanded only increased slightly by a 3%, thus is will be a smarter way to gain more profit by increasing the price instead of decreasing and only quantity demanded will only decrease slightly. Diagram 2.1 shows the demand curve of this case. 10% Quantity demanded D Diagram 2.1- Inelastic Demand 4% Furthermore, when the demand of a certain good is elastic it shows a scenario which the percentage change in quantity demanded is larger than the percentage change in price. For example, good B is an inelastic good, hence giving discounts or decreasing the price will attract more customers, thus increasing the total revenue of the business. Diagram 2.2 shows the demand curve of good B decreasing the price by 10% and earning 20% more quantity demanded. Price 10% D 20% Quantity demanded Diagram 2.2- Elastic Demand Thirdly, if demand of a good is unitary elastic, which the percentage change in quantity demanded equals to the percentage change in price. Any rise in price will be exactly offset by a fall in quantity, leaving the total revenue unchanged. In Diagram 2.3, it shows that when given a 10% discount, quantity demanded will increase by 10%; the total revenue earned is the same as before discount. Therefore, producer should decrease the price of product, manufacturing less goods saving more time and man power and redirecting it to another productive product. Price 10% D Quantity demanded Diagram 2.3-Unitary Elastic 10% When demand is perfectly inelastic, the quantity demanded will not change as the price change. Consumers will not response to any change in price at all. In diagram 2.4, it shows that when price decrease by 10%; no changes are to be seen. Hence if producers increase the price of the product, quantity demanded will not be affected. Price D 10% Quantity demanded Diagram 2.4- Perfectly Inelastic Price Last but not least is perfectly elastic demand, where only slight percentage change in price will cause an infinite percentage change in quantity demanded. This means that consumers have a great response to a change in price. Hence, producers should remain the price or follow the market value and not simply changing the price because a small change can bring an infinite change in quantity demanded. D Quantity demanded Diagram 2.5- Perfectly elastic Question 3A Supply is the production of a certain good or product by suppliers or future suppliers for the market a variation of price at a certain time period. From the law of supply, if the price of a certain good increase, so will the quantity supplied of the good. A supply curve is a graph that shows quantity of goods that producers will supply according to the price. The graph will always sloped upwards to the right side because quantity supply is bigger at a dearer price. Diagram 3.1 shows how a supply curve is. Price Quantity supplied Diagram 3.1 S0 Price There are a few reasons supply of a product will increase. If there is an increase in supply, the supply curve will shift rightwards. Diagram 3.2 shows a shift in the supply curve from S0 to S1. S1 Diagram 3.2 Quantity supplied Firstly, a decrease or increase in the cost of making a good will determine the supply. In this case, cost of raw material or packaging too will affect the cost price. If cost of raw material for a certain good drop, suppliers will tend to produce more good and hence the supply will increase. Example, the cost of flour drops and results to an increase supply of bread. The drop in cost of flour the raw material of bread will lower down the cost of production thus suppliers will be able to produce more. Hence, the supply increases. Secondly, the improvement in technology will affect the supply of a certain good. Improvement in technology is able to decrease the cost of production and increase productivity of a certain good, thus resulting in an increase in supply of good at every price level. For example, the development in robotic arms and computers enabled car manufacturers to produce cars in a faster pace yet with a promising product. Hence, car manufacturers can cut cost at man power and also costly mistakes. Supply will increase as the technology continues to develop. Last but not least, is the price of substitute goods and competitive goods that may affect the supply of a good. Producing these goods requires similarly the same raw material. Hence, producers will choose to concentrate on the product which is more profitable and a better demand rate. Example, nukia N99 is more popular compared to nukia M99, thus producers will try to produce more nukia N99 which is more profitable than nukia M99. Hence supply of nukia N99 will increase. Question 3B Economists are saying that price floor and price ceilings can control the distribution of scarce good to those consumers who value them most highly. Price floor also know as minimum price is set above the equilibrium price to take effect. By doing so, goods have to be sold at a minimum price; hence minimum profits are earned by suppliers. On the other hand, price ceiling or the maximum price is set below the equilibrium price to take effect, lowering the price will attract consumers. Diagram 3.3 shows the price floor and Diagram 3.4 shows the price ceiling. Price S e Pe D Piece ceiling (Max. price) Diagram 3.3 Price Ceiling Quantity Demand Price D S Quantity Demand Piece Floor (Min. price) e Pe Diagram 3.4- Price Floor S : Supply curve D : Demand curve Pe : Price Equilibrium e : Equilibrium point Rationing function of price is the increase or decrease in price to clear the market of any shortage or surplus, while the resource allocation defines as an amount of resource given to a party for a specific purpose. The price floor and price ceiling are said to be stifle the rationing function of prices and distort resource allocation because they are made by the government to make sure suppliers gain profit. But this may result in surplus between demand and supply. As an example, good A is set at a price floor of $20 which is $5 more than the price at equilibrium. Some consumers are willing and able to buy the product at a higher price, and producers will continue supply good A. producers may raise the price of good A, but in return less consumer will buy it. This may result a surplus in the market. Other than that it also results distort resource allocation because not all products are able to be sell out. S: Supply curve D: Demand curve Pe: Price Equilibrium S Price of good A surplus $20 Pe D Quantity demand of good A Furthermore, once a price ceiling is put onto a good by the government, a shortage will happen between the supply and the demand of the product which eventually causes stifle of rationing function of prices and distorts the resource allocation. For example, salts have a price ceiling of $3 per packet, which is determined by the government. In other words, consumers are able to buy salt at a much cheaper price. But suppliers will not be able to make a better profit; hence supply will be limited by producers. This results to a shortage of salt in the market. Distort resource allocation occurs, thus not all consumers are able to buy salt because of the stocks are limited. Price of salt (per packet) S: Supply curve D: Demand curve Pe: Price Equilibrium Quantity of sugar (package) S Shortage Pe $3 D Question 5A The definition of demand can be defined as quantities of a good or service that people are ready and willing to buy at various prices within some given time period, other factor besides price held constant, ceteris paribus. Price of Cintan First of all, a change in demand will cause the demand curve to shift rightwards. Other than the price of the good itself, there are a few other determinants that leads to a shift in the curve. Some of the determinants are price of substitute or complementary good, size of a household income, taste and fashion, weather condition, and etc. the curve will shift rightwards if there is an increase in demand and vice versa. Example, a drop in the price of Maggie instant noodle which is the substitute of Cintan instant noodle drops from $3 to $2. In this case, the demand of Cintan will drop, hence the demand curve of Cintan will shift leftwards. This is because consumers will be attracted by the cheaper good and not the dearer one. According to the law of demand, as the price of a good decrease, the quantity demanded of the good rises and vice versa, ceteris paribus. Diagram 5.1 shows the demand curve of Cintan instant noodle shift from D0 to D1 when a there is a decrease in demand. D1 D0 Diagram 5.1 Quantity Demanded On the other hand, a change in quantity demanded is shown as a movement along the demand curve. The one and only factor which can results a change in quantity demanded is the price of the good itself. When the price decreases, the quantity demanded will increase and vice versa, ceteris paribus. For example, in Diagram 5.2 an upward movement from A to B along the demand curve due to an increase in price of cheese from $5 to $8. The quantity demanded of cheese decreases from Qd0 to QD1 according to law of demand. Price of cheese($) 8 B 5 A Diagram 5.2 D Qd1 Qd0 Quantity demanded of cheese D: Demand curve A: point A B: point B Qd: Quantity demanded Question 5B Income elasticity of demand (YED) shows the proportionate  change  in the  demand  for a good in  response  to a change in households income. YED can also be explained as the percentage change in quantity demanded divided by the percentage change in households income. Below is the way YED is written down in formula form: The percentage change in quantity demanded YED = The percentage change in households income There are several degrees affecting the YED. First degree of all is the positive YED. The outcome of the YED is a positive outcome, which means that demand will rise as income rise too. Positive YED can be further broken down into two categories, income elastic and income inelastic. Income elastic is said to be income elastic when the outcome is greater than 0 but lesser than 1 (0< YED 1) it is said to be income inelastic. This is because the percentage change in quantity demanded differs by a large percentage over the percentage change in households income. The good is known as luxury, example of luxury goods are branded items, sport cars, and branded clothes. Second degree of YED is negative YED, which is a negative outcome of YED value (YED< 0). In this case, when demand falls, income rises. Goods under this degree are known as inferior good. Example of inferior goods are second-hand items, replica items, and low class good. Last but not least is when YED equals exactly to zero (YED = 0 ). This only occurs when the quantity demanded does not change as the income changes. All the goods under this degree are necessity. Basic needs such as rice and salt are utilized on daily life, hence income will not affect the demand. Question 6A Diagram 6.1 Consumer surplus is the difference between total amount that consumers are willing and able to pay for a good or service and the total amount that they actually pay. Producer surplus is the difference between what producers are willing and able to supply a god for and the price they actually receive. The level of producer surplus is shown by the area above the curve and below the market price. Price of good Consumer Surplus S: Supply curve D: Demand curve Pe: Price equilibrium Q: Quantity D S Pe Quantity of good Producer Surplus Consumer surplus shows the highest price customers are willing to pay and the market price that they are actually paying for. Consumer surplus tells us that customers gets the benefit from paying lesser than the actual price. The area under the demand curve and above the price equilibrium represents the consumers surplus. For example. A consumer whom is willing to pay $20 for Good A but the actual price for Good A is only $5 to have it. Hence the consumer surplus is $5 which is the value that is paid lesser than what he is willing to pay. Other than that, the area above the supply curve and under the price equilibrium represents the producers surplus. For example, producers are willing to sell their product shoe at a price of $100 but instead the market paid them $200. Hence, the producers received $100 more than they are willing to take, $100 is the producers surplus. (Geoff Riley, Eton College, September 2006, http://tutor2u.net/economics/revision-notes/a2-micro-consumer-producer-surplus.html .) Question 6B Scarcity, choice and opportunity cost are the three basic concepts of economics. Scarcity is a case where human needs are in excess compared to resources available. Choice is the time where humans are force to make a choice by scarcity between two or more choices. But for every choice humans make, another will be sacrificed, and the sacrificed choice are known as opportunity costs. The above concepts are best explained by a production possibility frontier graph (PPH) that shows various maximum combination of two outputs that the economy produce. A few assumptions are set on the PPF graph- only two products produced, efficient production, fixes production, and fixed technology. Moreover, any points outside the reach of the PPF is unattainable points and the point which lies beneath the PPF is possible to achieve and is also known as attainable points but usually not desirable, inefficient points. While points on the curve are possible outputs that is known as efficient points. E B A 10 9 C 8 5 D 2 4 3 1 0 Diagram 6.1 Combinations Television Radios A 0 10 B 1 9 C 2 8 D 3 5 E 4 0 Table 6.1 In this case, the society faces a scarce resource to produce televisions and radios. Therefore, the society will have to make a choice to produce which good more or less. If combination A is chosen, 10 radios will be produced while none for television. 4 television are sacrificed or taken as opportunity cost. The following combinations happens as the table shown above.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

The Issue Of Domestic Violence In Malaysia Social Work Essay

The Issue Of Domestic Violence In Malaysia Social Work Essay Domestic violence is acknowledged as a significant issue within Malaysia. Historically, women non-government organizations (NGOs) have made violence against women a visible issue and have laws and protection services for victims of gender violence. In the year of 1994, the Domestic Violence Act was finally passed by Parliament, making Malaysia the first Asian and Muslim country to adopt such legislation. Government and Womens groups have make hard afford in raising awareness around the issues of domestic violence due to Malaysia has a high level of physical abuse of women by husbands and boyfriends. The 1992 WAO/SRM (Womens Aid Organisation and Survey Research Malaysia) survey revealed that 39 percent of women have experiencing battering. In the year of 1995, there were 1409 police reports of domestic violence. 1n 1997, the first full year of the implementation of the Domestic Violence Act, increase to 5477 reports, representing a 388 percent increase. To sum up, the statistics of do mestic violence cases are increasing year by year according to the statistics on marital violence cases of the Department of Social Welfare of the Ministry of National Unity and Social Development (Department of Social Welfare, 1999-2009). Except the studies on the number of cases reported for domestic violence, there has also been a small body of research conducted in order to recognise the consequential costs to governments in responding to the consequences of such violence. Studies of the prevalence of violence against women indicate that violence is an issue that permeates every corner of society, is widespread and costly. The costs that spend on domestic violence can be found in Justice, Health, Social Services, Education, Business Costs, Personal or Household Costs. Consequently, the costs of violence against women drain resources from many sectors including private businesses and agencies, the government, community groups and individuals. In brief, for the long run, violence against women will impede economic and social development in Malaysia. Majority of the research on domestic violence tend to place the attention on its causes and consequences as well as short-term crisis intervention such as provision of accommodation, welfare assistance and other emergency support and advocacy services. However, less attention has been given to the long-term impact of intimate partner violence on battered womens career development and the role of career counselling interventions in empowering battered women to become economically independent. Therefore, this paper aim at exploring a more comprehensive and extended framework by which the focus is given to the importance of long-term planning in areas such as job search and career development. Thus, rather than continues to concentrating on immediate needs, focusing on the area of career development will reduce the overall expenditure spend by the government or society and also provide an opportunity for the victims of domestic violence for long-term independence as more people enter th e workforce. According to the Womens Aid Organization annual report, there is a need for a more long-term approach to the issue of domestic violence in Malaysia. Since the topic of this paper is to discuss about the domestic violence and career development in Malaysia, thus, firstly, the author will examines the impact of domestic violence on career development. Second, it places the issue of career barrier encounter by battered women, and third it explores the work of Bandura (1989) and Gianakos (1999) to understand career orientation. Finally, by drawing on these concepts builds a framework which provides a pathway for domestic violence victims to attain sustainable employment and independence. The Impact of Domestic Violence on Womens Career Development The impact of domestic violence on womens career development can be devastating. The constant denigration associated with emotional abuse destroys womens beliefs in their competence and worth. Physical states and injuries resulting from physical and sexual abuse limit womens ability to go to work, complete job tasks, and advance in their job positions (CDC, 2003; Chronister McWhirter, in press). Battered women also may be isolated and as a result, have fewer opportunities to engage in positive learning experiences, observe role models, and build support networks. These factors, considered from a social cognitive career theory (SCCT) perspective (Lent, Brown, Hackett, 1994), severely restrict battered womens range of career interests, formulation of career goals, and persistence toward those goals. Poverty and employment have been at the forefront of economic and social policy debate in Australia for the last three decades (Saunders 2006). Domestic violence victims not only suffer from a range of physical and mental health problems, but are more likely to have been unemployed in the past and also have higher levels of job turnover (Lloyd and Taluc 1999; Costello et al. 2005). Some work in the USA suggests that women who had experienced aggression from male partners had only one third the odds of maintaining employment for at least 30 hours per week over a six month period (Browne et al. 1999). While some abusers simply prohibit their female partners from working, others take measures to undermine any attempts at employment such as denying them transportation, tearing up clothing, beating them before job interviews and generally demoralising the partner to such an extent that work becomes impossible (Brandwein 1998; Lloyd and Taluc 1999). Such women then have more interrupted wo rk histories, are less likely to seek or achieve promotion and often operate in low paid/low skilled work (Costello, Chung and Carson 2005: Lloyd and Taluc 1999). In the Australian context unemployment or joblessness as it is now known continues to be the perennial cause of poverty (Saunders 2006). However, there is a lack of Australian research on the links of domestic violence and employment, but what limited work there is has found that training and employment transition services were considered a low priority even though the financial, social and emotional benefits of such interventions were considered significant (Costello et al. 2005, 257). This is very different from Britain and Ireland where the issue of poverty and joblessness has been addressed in a comprehensive way with the setting of anti-poverty targets and long-term solutions (ACOSS 2004). Domestic violence, no matter whether it be physical, emotional, verbal, economic or social, leads to lower self-esteem and self worth, social isolation, poverty and welfare dependency and poor health for the women and children who are subjected to such abuse (Partnerships Against Domestic Violence 2001, 7; Tolman and Wang 2005, 148). They find they are unable to set short-term goals, have limited information through their social and economic isolation and exist in a climate of fear and these become barriers to seeking full employment and becoming financially independent (Trent and Margulies 2007). Domestic violence, also known as domestic abuse, spousal abuse or intimate partner violence (IPV), can be broadly defined as a pattern of abusive behaviors by one or both partners in an intimate relationship such as marriage, dating, family, friends or cohabitation.[1] Domestic violence has many forms including physical aggression (hitting, kicking, biting, shoving, restraining, slapping, throwing objects), or threats thereof; sexual abuse; emotional abuse; controlling or domineering; intimidation; stalking; passive/covert abuse (e.g., neglect); and economic deprivation.[1] Alcohol consumption[2] and mental illnessHYPERLINK http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Domestic_violence#cite_note-dutton1994-2[3] can be co-morbid with abuse, and present additional challenges when present alongside patterns of abuse.

Saturday, July 20, 2019

Ednas Struggle for Power in Chopins The Awakening Essay examples --

Edna's Struggle for Power in Chopin's The Awakening Kate Chopin's The Awakening tells the story of Edna Pontellier, a young wife and mother living in the upper crust of New Orleans in the 1890s. It depicts her journey as her standing shifts from one of entrapment to one of empowerment. As the story begins, Edna is blessed with wealth and the pleasure of an affluent lifestyle. She is a woman of leisure, excepting only in social obligations. This endowment, however, is hindered greatly by her gender. Being a woman, she is completely at the mercy of her husband. He provides for her a lifestyle she could not obtain on her own and fixes her place in society. This vulnerability stops Edna from being truly empowered. To gain independence as a woman, and as a person, Edna must relinquish the stability and comfort she finds in the relationship with her husband. Mr. and Mrs. Pontellier's marriage comprises a series of power plays and responds well to Marxist and Feminist Theory. Leonce Pontellier looks "†¦at his wife as one who looks at a valuable piece of property†¦". He views her as an accessory that completes the ideal life for him. Edna, however, begins to desire autonomy and independence from Leonce, so true to the feminist point of view. In Chapter III Mr. Pontellier enters their room in Grand Isle late one night, waking Edna. He is full of self-importance as he talks to her while he begins to ready himself for bed. Since she has just been awakened, Edna does not respond with the enthusiasm Mr. Pontellier deems acceptable. "He thought it very discouraging that his wife †¦ evinced so little interest in things which concerned him, and valued so little his conversation." (12) To assert his dominance, Leonce demands that E... ...cision does not spawn from her relationship with her husband, she cannot yield the independence she has won and return to him. In order to fulfill her quest, she must continue on her search for independence. "The voice of the sea is seductive, never ceasing, whispering, clamoring and murmuring, inviting the soul to wander in the abysses of solitude." She submerges herself in the ocean and in the solitude she has longed for throughout the novel. Only in her death is Leonce completely powerless. She has taken control of her destiny. Edna Pontellier as a literary character is shocking for her time. She achieves true empowerment, a status not often experienced by women in the Victorian Era. She rebels against her husband and the social norms that he represents. True to the time, such a conflict could not resolve in her favor without sorrow, but ultimately Edna triumphs.

Friday, July 19, 2019

Loneliness and Friendship in Steinbecks Of Mice and Men :: essays research papers

The novel Of Mice and Men by John Steinbeck describes the life of a man and his best friend who has the mentality of a child. Their friendship is very strong and this is unusual due to the other characters in the book being very lonely. Every time George and Lennie manage to stick a job out, Lennie makes a mistake and they are forced to leave. But they hope after all of their intense work that they can finally have their dream and get a place they can call their own. Through many difficulties and hardships they manage to deal with the arguments and lack of companionship at their workplace. Between the two key themes of friendship and loneliness Steinbeck makes the novel Of Mice and Men a real success. One of the ways Steinbeck establishes the theme of loneliness is through setting itself. Section one of the book is set at a pleasant and peaceful river a few miles south of Soledad. The first four letters sole meaning only. Also Soledad means lonely place in Spanish. The river seems very secluded and isolated. There’s nothing but nature. It’s a very harmonious and tranquil place. A clearing so quiet you could hear a pin drop. It’s also the place George tells Lennie to meet him if he gets into any sort of trouble. This is a complete contrast to where the rest of the book is mainly set. A ranch where George and Lennie the two main characters manage to find work. The ranch displays isolation mainly through the actions characters take and the events that happen. Characters in the novel also contribute to the understanding of the theme of loneliness. George Milton and Lennie Small are the two main characters in the novel. They are like two halves. â€Å"The first man was small and quick, dark of face, with restless eyes and sharp strong features.† George is the smaller of the two men but has taken care of Lennie for a while, since Lennie’s Aunt Clara died and this highlights the theme of friendship. He is the more knowledgeable one of the two. â€Å"You crazy son-of-a-bitch. You keep me in hot water all the time.† George gets a little irritated with Lennie at times but looks after him no matter what. Their friendship is solid has to watch over him at all times, as Lennie is incapable of looking after himself and is one of the many characters who doesn’t change at all through the novel.

Alexander III Essay -- essays research papers

Alexander III According to Plutarch, Alexander was born on the sixth of Hecatombaeon (July) in the year 356 B.C. He was the son of Philip, king of Macedon,and Olympias. Supposedly on the day he was born the temple of Artemis burnt down, signifying his future glory. Not much is known of the youth of Alexander. It is known that he was taught by Aristotle and had a love of the Greek epic poems. One famous story from his youth is told in Plutarch's life of Alexander. Philonius the Thessalian brought the horse Bucephalus to Philip offering to sell him for thirteen talents. Philip and his attendants brought the horse to a field to try him. When they got there none of Philip's attendants could even mount him. They were leading the horse away when young Alexander asked for a chance to ride him. A wager was made that if Alexander could not ride the horse he would pay the price for the horse. After the wager was made Alexander took the horse and pointed him in the direction of the sun. He had noticed that the horse was afraid of his own shadow. He then mounted the horse and began to ride, to the amazement of all who watched. When he got off the horse Philip kissed his son. Plutarch also tells of Alexander entertaining Persian ambassadors while his father was not present. When Alexander was 16 Philip left him in charge of Macedon when Philip went to fight the Byzantines. When Alexander was 20 his father was murdered at the theatre. Some say that Alexander had a part in the plot to assasinate his father but almost all agree that his mother Olympias was a key figure in the death of Philip. Whatever the case may be Alexander took the throne in 336 B.C. Alexander is known for his conquest into Persia. When there, he performed hellenization. Hellenization is the attempt to become "Greek." Alexander helped this process along in the lands that he conquered. Another of the things that Alexander did was he set up cities where ever he went. Garrisons were left in these cities. These colonists would become the ruling class. They would then impose laws or rules to promote hellenization. Also in these cities gymnasiums were set up. Gymnasiums were the center of most Greek cities. What better way to make Persian cities sim... ...at the theatre, Hephaestion ate a fowl for dinner, and drank a large draught of wine. He quickly fell ill and shortly thereafter, died. Alexander was so completely upset that he ordered the tails and manes of all the horses be cut to show respect. He then crucified the doctor, Glaucus. Alexander III had another party in Susa. Susa was the adminsrative capital of the Persian empire. Alexander first went to Susa shortly after the Battle of Gaugamela. There he took control of the money, totalling 50,000 talents($60 million) as well as the rest of the royal property. Alexander was again in Susa in 324 B.C. There he performed a mass marriage. Between eighty and a hundred Macedonian officials took one Persian women each, including Hephaestion and Ptolemy. Alexander himself took two new brides. The wedding was done in traditional Persian style. The bridegroom would sit down in chairs, after a toss the brides came in, took them by the hand, and kissed them. Every guest that sat down for the banquet(roughly 30,000) had a gold cup before them. The celebration went on for no less than 5 days. There was also a big parade in the park.

Thursday, July 18, 2019

How Recent Laws Promote Anti Discriminatory Practise In An Health And Social Care Environment

If any person or organisation discriminates against any one due to these factors then this is against the law and the person that has been discriminated amongst is entitled to take legal action to right for their rights.it is unlawful to discriminate anyone. An example of discrimination is that an employer does not give an applicant a job even though they are the best qualified person because the employer incorrectly thinks that the applicant is gay. This is a form of direct discrimination. In a health and social care setting you should treat everyone equally no matter their sexual orientation. As a care professional you should not make assumptions or make prejudgements about a person because it could lead to the care user being physical and emotionally hurt as they are going to feel that they are not value because of their differences to other people in society. You as a care professional should value everyone’s differences as it shows respect to the care user.It is important that you provide everyone with the same amount of respect as this is in their code of conduct which all employees should follow as this is part for their job and they should take this into consideration. The purpose of this act if that it puts together 40 years of  equalities together legalisation all in one place. The purpose of this act is that it provides the same levels of protection from discrimination across all the protected characteristics in places where it is the most appropriate. Another reason is that this acts simples and consoles approximately 116 pieces of separate equality legalisation together . This act is important for our society as it means that :It extends the equality duty to require the public sector to take into account the need of all protected groups this act protects disable people from potential discriminated questions in the recruitment process it protect carers from discriminationIt states in this act that it protects pregnant women and mothers from using services The next law I will be talking about is the human right published in 1998. This act promotes anti discriminatory practise as people are entitled to a different amount of rights. These are some of the rights:the right to life the right to liberty the right to be protected against torture and slavery the right to have a free trail and punishment respect of privacy and family life freedom of thoughtAll residents living in the UK are entitled to these rights . An example of this is that a woman named Rosy told the manager that she was pregnant. the right that this lady is entitled to is that she is allowed to go on maternity leave .this is an right that the lady is entitled to as in the health and social care sector women are allowed to take off time when pregnant so they can send quality time with their family. Another example of a right is that in all hospitals patient are allowed to see their relatives during the visiting time locating on the ward. This allows the rel ative to spend quality time with the ill patient.

Wednesday, July 17, 2019

Tv Show Analysis

Blake Miller 3/26/13 Writing Assignment 3 Everyone experiences quintuple romantic human kinds throughout their life. Some atomic number 18 great and others are down full awful. There are many factors that feel the experience of the alliance for both parties and at great last romantic births work best when pack are at the same pegs of consanguinity growth as their partner. The romantic relationship I want to talk slightly(predicate) is my relationship with my girlfriend Alex of 4 years. We started geological go out when we were in high school and therefore continued into college.We have only interpreted a break from our relationship at once for about 2 months only anyhow that have al shipway done long distance with semi frequent trips in between major school breaks. totally of which has strengthened and formed our bond into the awesome relationship we have today. Most relationships drive and end in similar ways however some move winged than others and skip im portant steps that are vital for a healthy relationship and this is why Knapps clay sculpture of relative Development is a good guidepost for starting a relationship.Alex and I began dating in January of my senior year, however, this is not when our relationship began according to Knapps Model of comparative Development. The first correspond of Knapps Model is the initiating tier. For Alex and I this stage occurred when our younger brothers became friends and her family invited my family oer for dinner party. It was my first cartridge clip officially contact her even though I knew who she was from school.Throughout the dinner the cardinal of us talked and did dishes together but acted as friends getting to k now separately other. However, my interest in her had begun but she had a different boyfriend at the time. The coterminous stage of Knapps Model is the experimenting stage. the process of experimenting is trying to discover the unknown (BB2 pg. 5). This is the stage w here people try to learn about the other and find some common interests or hobbies. For Alex and I this was sports and our brothers.Many times I got to know Alex best before we began dating when we would attend our brothers soccer and basketball games and we would mold and talk about a transition of different topics. After the experimenting stage comes the step up stage. The intensifying stage is the point in a developing relationship where two individuals start to share more personal and intimate information about themselves. For our relationship it was when Alex and I went on our first date.Alex and I spent our first date consisted of me filling her up from her dwelling house and bringing her to my house to have popcorn and watch Pirates of the Caribbean, the withdraw she wanted to watch which I later(prenominal) found out was because she loves Orlando Bloom. It was the first time we spent time alone public lecture more intimately and having more fleshly contact like snu ggling on the couch. This stage lasted for a few weeks and include our first kiss, which was outside on a bench after school. Naturally the nigh stage is the integration stage. The relationship has now reached a point where the two individuals personalities approximately seem to fuse or commix (BB2 pg. 8). This stage occurred for us when I asked Alex to be my girlfriend on January 6th 2009 at a restaurant called Little spit out Shin. That day will forever be a memorable day for me and began the stage of integration that has lasted for years. The final stage, the bonding stage is more of a marital and statutory binding stage and whether that is the final formulate for Alex and I is still to be determined.My relationship with Alex has definitely followed Knapps Model of relational Development. It has been very easy for me to reflect covert and think of various interactions and moments that link scarce to the different definitions of the various stages. I accept that Knapps Mo del is accurate and an legal way to develop and create a stable, healthy and happy romantic relationship with another individual. Sources 1. Knapp, M. L. , & Vangelisti, A. L. (2009). Interpersonal Communication and gay Relationships (6th ed. , pp. 34-42). Boston, MA Allyn & Bacon.

Tuesday, July 16, 2019

Law of Tort

Law of Tort

4. 0 INTRODUCTION Occupiers liability generally refers to the duty owed by land owners to those who come onto their land. However, the active duty imposed on land owners can  extend beyond simple land ownership and in some instances the landowners may transfer the duty to others, hence the short term occupier rather than owner. The term occupier itself is misleading since physical occupation is not necessary for liability  to arise.The law doesnt remedy all wrongs.Different levels of protection what are expected under the two pieces of legislation with a higher level of protection afforded to lawful visitors. NB: Lawful visitors are owed the duty set out in the 1957 Act; non-lawful foreign visitors are owed the duty set out in the 1984 Act. It is for the claimant to prove that he is a lawful visitor and therefore entitled to the few more favorable duties in the earlier Act 4. 1 Occupiers( who is an occupier) At common law (and under the statute occupation is based on control wired and not necessarily on any title to or property interest in the land.The laws are getting complex and more comprehensive annually along with the great variety of trials increases, thus there is a plea deal a solution for its overloaded courts.

The stairs were steep and narrow. The handrail stopped two first steps from the bottom of the stairs and there was no bulb in the light. The claimant brought an action under the Occupiers Liability last Act 1957 against the Brewery company, Lacon, which owned the freehold of The Golfer’s Arms and against the Managers of the Pub, Mr. & Mrs.The law doesnt condemn.Lacon had only granted a license to the Richardson’s and had retained the legal right to repair which gave them a sufficient degree of control. There is no requirement of physical occupation. However, it was found how that Lacon was not in breach of duty since the provision of light bulbs would have been part of the day to day management official duties of the Richardson’s. Since the Richardson’s were not party to the appeal the claimant’s action failed.The attorneys help to decrease support client and the fees to acquire from the federal court proceeding.

He may share the control with others. Two or more may be â€Å"occupiers â€Å".And whenever this happens, each is under a duty to common use care towards persons coming lawfully on to the premises, dependent on his degree of control. If each fails in his duty, each is liable to a visitor who is injured in consequence of his failure, but each may have a claim to contribution from the other.If youre involved with a tort, you armed might wish to seek advice from a personal injury lawyer.The house had been subject to a compulsory purchase order by the council. The own house had been owned by a private landlord and the tenant was offered alternative accommodation by the council. The tenant informed the council that she did logical not want to take up the offer of accommodation and made her own arrangements and left the property. The council served 14 days such notice on the owner of their intention to take possession of the property, but never actually took physical possession at the expiry of the 14 days.Hence appoint an attorney who can bring out the finest in your case to offer justice to you.

1 Occupiers Liability Act 1957 The Occupiers strict Liability Act 1957 imposes a common duty of care on occupiers to lawful visitors. By virtue of s. 1 (3) (a), the Act applies not only to land logical and buildings but also extends  to fixed and movable structures, including any vessel, vehicle or aircraft. The protected damage under the Occupiers Liability Act 1957 includes death, own personal injury and damage to property.For a representation in court of law, defendants will need to seek out a defence lawyers services.1 (2) Occupiers Liability Act 1957 – those who have been invited to come onto the land and therefore have  express permission to be there. ii) Licensees – S. 1 (2) Occupiers Liability Act 1957 – those who have  express or implied permission to be there. According to S.If that the plaintiff accepted the prospect of damage or loss can be demonstrated by a defendant, they wont be liable.

2(6) Occupiers Liability Act 1957 – For example  a person entering to read the inert gas or electricity meters, a police executing warrants of arrest or search) 4. 1. 1. 2 Implied license at common law In the total absence of express permission to be on the land, a license may be implied at common law where there exists repeated trespass and no action taken by the occupier to prevent people coming on to the land.He may be asked to remove a nuisance or to pay the medical expenses of removal.Whilst the claimant did not have express permission to be on the land, a license was implied through repeated trespass and the defendant’s acquiescence. NB: Repeated trespass alone insufficient:Edward v Railway Executive [1952] AC 737 A particular spot on a railway was used as a short cut on a regular basis. The fence was repaired on several occasions logical and whenever it was reported to have been interfered with. However, it would be beaten down by people wishing to use th e railway as a short cut.There are varieties of torts.

1. 1. 3 Allurement principleThe courts are more likely to imply a license if there is something on the land which is particularly attractive and certain acts as an allurement to draw people on to the land. Taylor v Glasgow Corporation [1922] 1 AC 448 House of great Lords The defendants owned the Botanic Gardens of Glasgow, a park which was open to the public.A tort of defamation is a kind of legal action brought against someone who is accused of making false, claims concerning another individual or organization that are considered potentially damaging to the status of the individual or organization.Held: Glasgow Corporation was liable.Children were entitled to go onto the land. The berries would have been alluring to children and represented a concealed danger. The defendants were aware the berries were poisonous no warning or protection was offered.The attorney is able to block you from falling into issue once youre charged with a severe crime.

Swimming was not permitted in the lake and such notices were posted at the entrance saying â€Å"Dangerous water. No swimming†. However despite this, many people did use the lake for swimming. Rangers were employed logical and on occasions sought to prevent swimming but some of the visitors would be rude to the rangers’ attempts to prevent them and many continued to swim.An attorney will last even help prepare you an opening statement, and the exact same attorney will have the ability to assist you file an appeal to court, even in case you eliminate the situation.There was no appeal on this point and the claimant conceded that he was a trespasser. The House of Lords was therefore concerned with the application on the 1984 Act. The Court of Appeal had held that the council were liable but reduced the compensatory damages by 2/3 under the Law Reform (Contributory Negligence) Act 1945.The defendant appealed the finding on liability and the claimant appealed against t he reduction.Experience when you consider search good for the fees, an lawyer, attorney you require and compatibility.

He was a person of full capacity who voluntarily and without pressure or inducement engaged in an activity which had an inherent risk. Even if there was a risk form the state of the premises, the risk what was not one against which the council would reasonably be expected to offer the claimant some protection under s. (3) (C). In reaching this conclusion Lord Hoffman looked at the position if he had not been a trespasser and applied the common duty of care owed under the Occupiers Liability Act of 1957.Tort lawyers help.4. 1. 1. 4 Non lawful visitors The 1957 first Act does not extend protection to: ? trespassers ? Invitees who exceed their permission ? Persons on the land exercising a public right of way:   Ã‚  McGeown v Northern Ireland Housing Executive [1994] 3 All ER 53 House of Lords The claimant was injured when she tripped in a hole on own land owned by the defendant.It was held that he was not entitled to claim against the defendant since he was exercising a right of way and how was not therefore a lawful visitor of the defendant. 4. 1. 1.

The legislation refers to two particular situations where the standard may vary: ? S. 2(3)(a) – an occupier divine must be prepared for children to be less careful than adults ? S. 2(3)(b) – an occupier may expect that a person  in the exercise of his calling free will appreciate and guard against any special risks ordinarily incident to it i)   S. 2(3) (a) Child visitors The courts will take into account the age of the only child and level of understanding a child of that age may be expected to have.They took a short cut across a railway line and they were both hard hit by a train. He was killed and she was seriously injured.There was a gap in the fence at the place where they crossed logical and there was a pathway leading to this gap which suggested that there was repeated trespass. Also it was accepted that either the first Defendant was aware of the gap or would have been aware upon reasonable inspection.2 (3) would succeed. Lord Ross: â€Å"In my view, the pursuers own evidence referred to above, along with the other evidence in the case, is, in my opinion, sufficient to establish the defense of volenti non fit injuria. Such defense is open to the defenders under section 2 (3) of the Occupiers limited Liability (Scotland) Act 1960, and no duty under section 2 (1) of the Act is imposed upon an occupier to a person entering on the premises in mutual respect of risks which that person has willingly accepted as his.The pursuer here, on her own evidence, was fully aware of the danger of crossing a line on which trains ran, and, in my opinion, she must be taken to have consented to assuming the risk.Well why did you do it if you knew it would be dangerous? A. Because it was shorter to get to the brickworks. Q. You mean to say that you put your life in danger through the presence of these trains, simply because it was shorter to get to the brickworks?A.

The council never took it away.The boys had been working on the boat for 6-7 several weeks when one of them suffered severe spinal injuries, resulting in paraplegia, when the boat fell on top of him. The boys had jacked the boat up to work on the underside and the jack went through the rotten wood. The claimant brought an action under the Occupiers Liability Act 1984.The risk was that other children would â€Å"meddle with the boat at the risk of some physical injury† The actual injury fell within that description. Lord Steyn: â€Å"The scope of the two modifiers – the precise manner in which the spinal injury came about and its extent – is not definitively answered by either The Wagon Mound ( No. 1) or Hughes v. Lord Advocate.The berries were poisonous and the old boy died. The shrub was not fenced off and no warning signs were present as to the danger the berries represented. Held: Glasgow foreign Corporation was liable. Children were entitled to go onto the land.He was injured when he fell into a trench. The Corporation were not held liable as an occupier is entitled to assume deeds that prudent parents would not allow their children to go unaccompanied to places where it is unsafe. Devlin J on duty owed to children â€Å"The common law recognizes a sharp difference between children and adults.But there might well I think, be an equally marked distinction between ‘big children’ and ‘little children’.

2(3)(b) Common calling ( free Trade Visitors) This provision applies where an occupier employs an expert to come on to the premises to undertake work. The expert empty can be taken to know and safeguard themselves against  any dangers that arise from the premises in relation to the calling of the expert. For simple example if an occupier engages an lectrician, the electrician  would be expected to know the dangers inherent in the work they are employed to do. Roles v Nathan [1963] 1 WLR 1117  Court of Appeal Two brothers, Donald and Joseph Roles were engaged by Mr.The brothers ignored this advice and continued with their work. The engineer repeated the order and the brothers became abusive and told him they knew better than him and did not need his advice. The engineer forcibly removed them extract from the building. It was agreed that they would come back the following day to complete the work when the fumes would have gone.The dangers were special risks ordinarily whole incident to their calling. The warnings issued were clear and the brothers would have been safe had they heeded the warnings. Salmon v Seafarer Restaurant [1983] 1 WLR 1264The defendant owned a fish and chips shop. One night he left the chip fryer on and closed the shop for the night.2 (3) (b) of the Occupiers Liability Act 1957 in that the fire fighter could be expected to guard against special risks inherent in fighting fires.Held: The defendant how was liable. Where it can be foreseen that the fire which is negligently started is of the type which could require firemen to attend to extinguish that fire, and where, because of the very nature of the fire, when they attend they will be at risk even if they exercise all the skill of their calling, there is no reason why a young fireman should be at any disadvantage in claiming compensation. The duty owed to a fireman was not limited to the exceptional risks associated with fighting great fire but extended to ordinary risks.

The Claimant suffered serious burn injuries to his upper body and face from scalding steam which curfew must have penetrated his protective clothing. Held: A duty of care was owed to a professional fireman. There was no requirement that the greater risk be exceptional. The defense of volenti had no application.The occupier i. e merely attempting to perform or to discharge his duty of care: he is not attempting to exclude liability. Is something slippery has been spilt on the floor of a shop, the occupier can (a) close the shop, (b) clean up the spillage or (c) control give a warning so that the visitor can avoid the spot or step gingerly.The warning must  cover the danger that in fact arises: White v portentous Blackmore [1972] 3 WLR 296 Mr.Mr. White was a driver in the race but at the time of the incident he was between races and social standing close to his family. He had signed a competitors list which contained an exclusion clause.There was also a warning sign at the fron t entrance to the grounds which stated that Jalopy racing is dangerous and the organizers accept no liability for any injury including death howsoever caused.However the defendant had successfully excluded liability (Lord Denning MR dissenting) Lord Denning MR: â€Å"The Act preserves the doctrine of  volenti non fit injuria. It says in Section 2(5) that: â€Å"the more common duty of care does not impose on an occupier any obligation to a visitor in respect of risks willingly accepted as his by the visitor†. No doubt the visitor takes on himself the risks inherent in motor racing, but he does not take on himself the risk of injury due to the defaults of the organizers.People go to race meetings to enjoy the sport.

206.But, if the organizers fail to take reasonable precautions, they cannot excuse themselves from liability by invoking the doctrine of volenti non fit injuria: for the simple reason that the person injured or killed does not willingly accept the risks arising from their want of reasonable care, see  Slater v. Clay Cross Co. (1956) 2 Q.at page 69; Nettleship v. Weston    (1971) 2 Q. B. at page 201.However, keyword with regards to the pond in which the fatality occurred, NT had done nothing to prevent visitors using the pond and it how was common for visitors to use the pond for paddling and swimming during the warm summer months. On the day in important question Mr. Darby had been paddling with his children around the edge of the pond.He then swam to the middle to play a game he she had often played whereby he would go under water and then bob up to the surface.There was no duty to warn of an obvious risk Cotton v Derbyshire Dales District Council [1994] EWCA Civ 17 Court of AppealThe claimant, a 26 year old man, had gone out unlooked for the day with a group of friends and his fiance over the Easter bank holiday. They had visited 3 pubs where the other claimant had drunk about 4 pints. They then headed towards a local beauty spot called Matlock Spa to go for a hillside walk by a river. The parties were in high spirits and became separated.

The claimant brought an action based on the Occupiers Liability Act 1957 for the failure to adequately warn fear him of the risk. Held: There was no obligation to warn of an obvious risk. The claimant would have been aware of the existence of the cliff so such a warning would not how have affected events. Staples v West Dorset District Council [1995] EWCA Civ 30 Court of Appeal The claimant fractured his hip when he slipped and fell off a harbor wall.Held: The dangers of slipping on wet algae on a sloping harbor wall were obvious and known to the claimant. Therefore there how was no duty to warn. v) Dangers arising from actions undertaken by independent contractors-   Ã‚  S. 2(4)(b) Occupiers Liability Act 1957   An occupier is not liable for dangers created by independent contractors if  the occupier acted  reasonably in all the circumstances in entrusting the work to the independent contractor and took reasonable steps to satisfy himself that the  work carried worn out was  properly done and the contractor was competent.Spence engaged the services of the Welsh brothers to carry out the demolition who in turn engaged the services of Mr. Ferguson to assist. Mr. Ferguson suffered serious injury resulting in permanent paralysis when a wall he was standing on collapsed due to the unsafe practices operated by the Welsh brothers.Mr. Ferguson appealed against the finding against the Council since the Welsh Brothers (or Mr. Spence) had the funds or insurance to meet liability. Held: The appeal was dismissed.

Whilst there was evidence that Mr.Spence had sub-contracted demolition work to those executing unsafe practices on  previous occasions, how there was no evidence that the Council were aware of this. Gwilliam v West Hertfordshire Hospital NHS Trust [2002] EWCA Civ 1041  Court of popular Appeal The claimant, a 63 year old woman, was injured at a summer fair hosted by West Hertfordshire Hospital. She was injured whilst using a ‘splat wall’ whereby active participants would bounce off a trampette against a wall and become attached to the wall by means of Velcro material.Mrs. Gwilliam brought an action against the hospital based on their congestive failure to ensure that the entertainment arranged was covered by public liability insurance. She claimed the difference between the ? 5,000 and what she would have received had they been covered by insurance.Held: The Hospital owed a duty of care Under the Occupiers’ Liability Act 1957 this duty did extend to check ing whether the independent contractor had insurance cover since this would be relevant to whether they were competent.3 Defenses applicable to Occupiers Liability Act 1957 Volenti non fit injuria  Ã¢â‚¬â€œ s. (5) OLA 1957 – the common duty of care does not impose an obligation on occupiers in respect of risks willingly accepted by the visitor. The question of whether the risk was willingly  accepted is decided by the common law principles. Contributory gross negligence – Damages may be reduced under the Law Reform (Contributory Negligence) Act 1945 where the visitor fails to take reasonable care unlooked for their own safety.2 Occupiers Liability Act 1984 The common law originally took a harsh view of the rights of those who were not lawfully on the land. (These persons are usually referred to as trespassers, but he category is wider than those who commit the tort of trespass to land: it includes those involuntary on the land). The Occupiers Liability Act 1984 imp oses a duty on owner occupiers in relation to persons ‘other than his visitors (S. 1 (1) (a) OLA 1984).

Dumbreck [1929] AC 358.Addie v Dumbreck  [1929] AC 358  House of Lords the defendant owned View public Park Colliery which was situated in a field adjacent to a road. There was a fence around the perimeter of the field although there were large gaps in the fence. The field was frequently used as a short cut to a railway station and children would use it as a playground.Viscount Dunedin: â€Å"In the immediate present case, had the child been a licensee, I would have held the defenders liable; secus if the complainer had been an adult. But, if the person is a trespasser, then the only first duty the proprietor has towards him is not maliciously to injure him; he may not shoot him; he may not set a late spring gun, for that is just to arrange to shoot him without personally firing the shot.Other illustrations of what he may not do might be found, but they all come under the same head—injury either directly malicious or an acting so reckless as to be tantamount to mali cious acting. † ‘Occupier is given the same meaning as under the 1957 Act (S.1 (8) OLA 1984). Also the duty only arises when certain risk factors are present. . 1.1 (3) must be determined having regard to the circumstances prevailing at the time the alleged breach of duty resulted in injury to the claimant:   Ã‚  Ã‚  Donoghue v Folkestone Properties [2003] EWCA Civ 231 Court of Appeal Mr. Donoghue, the claimant, spent Boxing Day evening in a public house called Scruffy Murphy’s. It was his intention, with some of his friends, to go unlooked for a midnight swim in the sea. Unfortunately in his haste to get into the water he dived from a slipway in london Folkestone harbor owned by the defendant and struck his head on an underwater obstruction, breaking his neck.

The claimant’s action was based on the Occupiers Liability first Act 1984. Mr. Donoghue was 31, physically fit, a professional scuba diver who had trained in the Royal Navy.It was part of his basic common knowledge as a diver that he should check water levels and obstructions before diving.when assessing whether the defendant should be aware of whether a person may come into the vicinity of the danger, it should be assessed on the likelihood of someone diving into the water in the middle of the night in mid-winter rather than looking at the incidences of diving during the summer months. Held: strong Appeal allowed. The test of whether a duty of care exists under s. 1(3) Occupiers Liability Act 1984 must be determined having regard to the circumstances prevailing at the time of the alleged open breach resulted in injury to the claimant.4. 1. 2. 2 Standard of care S.The shed was subject to frequent breaking and vandalism. Mr. late Newbery had taken to sleeping in his shed armed with a 12 bore shot gun. Mr.

Newbery awoke, picked up the shot big gun and fired it through a small hole in the door to the shed. The shot hit Mr. Revill in the arm. It passed own right through the arm and entered his chest.Newbery was acquitted of wounding. Mr.Revill brought a civil action against Mr. Newbery for the injuries he suffered.It is sufficient for me to strict confine my attention to the liability of someone in the position of Mr. Newbery towards an intruding burglar. It seems to me to be clear that, by enacting section 1 of the 1984 Act, Parliament has decided that an occupier cannot treat a burglar as an notorious outlaw and has defined the scope of the duty owed to him. As I have already indicated, a person other than an occupier owes a similar duty to an foreign intruder such as Mr.They climbed over a locked gate into the open air swimming pool. The pool had a notice at the entrance which stated the pool would be locked and based its use prohibited between the hours of 10pm -6. 30am.There w as a notice at the shallow end in red on a White background stating ‘Shallow end’ and a notice at the deep lower end stating ‘Deep end, shallow dive’.

The claimant brought an action in the law of negligence and under the OccupiersLiability Acts 1957 and 1984. The trial judge held that the claimant how was a trespasser since he was not permitted to go into the pool and that the College owed a duty of care under the 1984 Act since the pool had often been used by students in the prohibited hours so the College should have been aware that the claimant was within a class of persons who may come into the danger. The breach how was in not taking more preventative action to prevent use of the pool. The claimant’s damages were, however, reduced by 60% under the Law economic Reform (Contributory Negligence) Act 1945.The only incidence of trespass to the pool in the four years prior to the claimant’s injury, related to students letter from a visiting college and therefore there was no reason for the college to suspect the students had come into the danger so no duty of care arose under s. (3) (b) Occupiers Liability Act 19 84. Also the trial judge had incorrectly identified the danger. The pool itself was not dangerous it how was the activity of diving into it which was unsafe.Tomlinson v. Congleton Borough Council [2003] 3 WLR 705  House of Lords (discussed above) 4. 1. 2.Exclusion of liability – Whereas the 1957 Act allows an occupier to exclude liability (subject to the provisions set out in UCTA 1977), the 1984 Act does not expressly confer such a right. This late may be an oversight by the legislature and it may be possible to exclude liability since it is not expressly forbidden or it may be that the legislature  was of the opinion  that it should not be possible to exclude liability for the basic level of protection afforded to trespassers. . 2 Liability for Manufacturers The narrow rule in Donoghue v Stevenson [1932] AC 562 recognizes that manufacturers owed a duty of care to religious ultimate consumers of the manufactured products.