Saturday, May 18, 2019
Characteristics of Yeat’s Poetry
Yeats believed that finesse and political science were intrinsically linked and use his writing to express his attitudes toward Irish politics, as well as to educate his readers about Irish cultural history. From an untimely age, Yeats felt a deep connection to Ireland and his national identity, and he thought that British regulate negatively impacted Irish politics and social life.His early(a) compilation of folklore sought to teach a literary history that had been suppressed by British rule, and his early poems were odes to the beauty and mystery of the Irish countryside. This work frequently integrated references to myths and mythic fingerbreadths, including Oisin and Cuchulain. As Yeats became more than pertain in Irish politicsthrough his relationships with the Irish National Theatre, the Irish Literary Society, the Irish republican Brotherhood, and Maud Gonnehis poems increasingly resembled policy-making manifestos.Yeats wrote numerous poems about Irelands involvement in World War I (An Irish Airman Foresees His termination 1919, A Meditation in Time of War 1921), Irish nationalists and semi policy-making activists (On a Political Prisoner 1921, In computer memory of Eva Gore Booth and Con Markiewicz 1933), and the easterly Rebellion (Easter 1916 1916). Yeats believed that art could serve a political function poems could both critique and gossipmonger on political withalts, as well as educate and inform a population. The Impact of batch and the Divine on HistoryYeatss devotion to mysticism led to the development of a unique ghostlike and philosophic system that emphasized the fictional character of quite a little and historical determinism, or the whimsy that events have been preordained. Yeats had jilted Christianity early in his life, but his lifelong study of mythology, Theosophy, spiritualism, philosophy, and the mysterious demonstrate his profound interest in the divine and how it interacts with humanity. Over the signifier o f his life, he created a complex system of spirituality, using the get a line of engagement gyres (similar to spiral cones) to map out the development and reincarnation of the soul.Yeats believed that history was determined by fate and that fate revealed its plan in moments when the human and divine interact. A tone of historically determined inevitability permeates his poems, peculiarly in translations of situations of human and divine interaction. The divine takes on many forms in Yeatss poetry, sometimes literally (Leda and the Swan 1923), sometimes abstractly (The Second flood tide 1919). In other poems, the divine is only gestured to (as in the sense of the divine in the Byzantine mosaics in Sailing to Byzantium 1926).No matter what shape it takes, the divine signals the role of fate in determining the course of history. The Transition from Romanticism to Modernism Yeats started his long literary life history as a romantic poet and gradually explicated into a forward-lo okingist poet. When he began publishing poetry in the 1880s, his poems had a lyrical, romantic style, and they foc utilize on love, longing and loss, and Irish myths. His early writing follows the conventions of romantic meter, utilizing familiar create verbally schemes, metric patterns, and poetic structures. Although it is lighter than his later writings, his early poetry is still sophisticated and accomplished.Several factors contributed to his poetic growing his interest in mysticism and the occult led him to explore spiritually and philosophically complex subjects. Yeatss frustrated romantic relationship with Maud Gonne caused the starry-eyed romantic idealism of his early work to establish more knowing and cynical. Additionally, his concern with Irish subjects evolved as he became more closely connected to nationalist political causes. As a result, Yeats shifted his focus from myth and folklore to contemporary politics, often linking the two to make potent statements that reflected political agitation and turbulence in Ireland and abroad.Finally, and most significantly, Yeatss connection with the changing face of literary gardening in the early twentieth century led him to pick up some of the styles and conventions of the modernist poets. The modernists experimented with verse forms, precipitously engaged with contemporary politics, challenged poetic conventions and the literary tradition at large, and rejected the notion that poetry should but be lyrical and beautiful. These influences caused his poetry to become darker, edgier, and more concise.Although he never abandoned the verse forms that provided the sounds and rhythms of his rather poetry, there is still a noticeable shift in style and tone over the course of his c beer. Motifs Irish Nationalism and Politics Throughout his literary career, Yeats incorporated distinctly Irish themes and issues into his work. He used his writing as a tool to comment on Irish politics and the home rule movem ent and to educate and inform people about Irish history and culture. Yeats also used the scope of the Irish countryside to retell stories and legends from Irish folklore.As he became increasingly involved in nationalist politics, his poems took on a patriotic tone. Yeats addressed Irish politics in a variety of ways sometimes his statements are explicit political commentary, as in An Irish Airman Foresees His Death, in which he addresses the hypocrisy of the British use of Irish soldiers in World War I. Such poems as Easter 1916 and In Memory of Eva Gore Booth and Con Markiewicz address individuals and events connected to Irish nationalist politics, bandage The Second Coming and Leda and the Swan subtly include the idea of Irish nationalism.In these poems, a sense of cultural crisis and conflict seeps through, even though the poems are not explicitly about Ireland. By using images of chaos, disorder, and war, Yeats engaged in an minimize commentary on the political situations in Ireland and abroad. Yeatss active participation in Irish politics informed his poetry, and he used his work to further comment on the nationalist issues of his day. Mysticism and the occult arts Yeats had a deep fascination with mysticism and the occult, and his poetry is infused with a sense of the otherworldly, the spiritual, and the unknown.His interest in the occult began with his study of Theosophy as a young man and expanded and developed through his participation in the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn, a mystical secret society. Mysticism figures prominently in Yeatss discussion of the reincarnation of the soul, as well as in his philosophical model of the conic gyres used to explain the journey of the soul, the passage of time, and the guiding hand of fate. Mysticism and the occult occur over again and again in Yeatss poetry, most explicitly in The Second Coming but also in poems such as Sailing to Byzantium and The Magi (1916).The rejection of Christian principles in fa vor of a more supernatural draw close to spirituality creates a unique flavor in Yeatss poetry that impacts his discussion of history, politics, and love. Irish story and Folklore Yeatss participation in the Irish political system had origins in his interest in Irish myth and folklore. Irish myth and folklore had been suppressed by church doctrine and British control of the shoal system. Yeats used his poetry as a tool for re-educating the Irish population about their heritage and as a strategy for developing Irish nationalism.He retold entire folktales in epic poems and plays, such as The Wanderings of Oisin (1889) and The Death of Cuchulain (1939), and used fragments of stories in shorter poems, such as The Stolen Child (1886), which retells a parable of fairies luring a child away(predicate) from his home, and Cuchulains Fight with the Sea (1925), which recounts part of an epic where the Irish folk hero Cuchulain battles his long-lost son by at the edge of the sea. Other poem s deal with subjects, images, and themes culled from folklore.In Who Goes with Fergus? (1893) Yeats imagines a meeting with the exiled wandering king of Irish legend, while The Song of Wandering Aengus (1899) captures the experiences of the lovelorn matinee idol Aengus as he searches for the beautiful first seen in his dreams. Most important, Yeats infused his poetry with a rich sense of Irish culture. Even poems that do not deal explicitly with subjects from myth retain mightinessful tinges of indigenous Irish culture.Yeats often borrowed word selection, verse form, and patterns of imagery shockingctly from traditional Irish myth and folklore. Symbols The Gyre The gyre, a circular or conical shape, appears frequently in Yeatss poems and was developed as part of the philosophical system outlined in his book A Vision. At first, Yeats used the phases of the moon to articulate his belief that history was structured in terms of ages, but he later settled upon the gyre as a more re claimable model.He chose the image of interlocking gyresvisually represented as two intersecting conical spiralsto symbolize his philosophical belief that all things could be described in terms of cycles and patterns. The soul (or the civilization, the age, and so on) would move from the smallest halt of the spiral to the largest before moving along to the other gyre. Although this is a difficult concept to grasp abstractly, the image makes sense when applied to the waxing and waning of a particular historical age or the phylogeny of a human life from youth to adulthood to old age.The symbol of the interlocking gyres reveals Yeatss belief in fate and historical determinism as well as his spiritual attitudes toward the development of the soul, since creatures and events must evolve according to the conical shape. With the image of the gyre, Yeats created a shorthand reference in his poetry that stood for his entire philosophy of history and spirituality. The Swan Swans are a common symbol in poetry, often used to designate idealized nature. Yeats employs this convention in The Wild Swans at Coole (1919), in which the regal birds represent an unchanging, flawless ideal.In Leda and the Swan, Yeats rewrites the classical myth of Zeus and Leda to comment on fate and historical inevitability Zeus disguises himself as a swan to rape the unsuspecting Leda. In this poem, the bird is fearsome and destructive, and it possesses a divine power that violates Leda and initiates the dire consequences of war and devastation depicted in the final lines. Even though Yeats clearly states that the swan is the god Zeus, he also emphasizes the physicality of the swan the beating wings, the dark webbed feet, the long neck and beak.Through this description of its physical characteristics, the swan becomes a violent divine force. By rendering a well-known poetic symbol as violent and terrifying rather than idealized and beautiful, Yeats manipulates poetic conventions, an act of lit erary modernism, and adds to the power of the poem. The Great Beast Yeats employs the figure of a great beasta horrific, violent animalto exist difficult abstract concepts. The great beast as a symbol comes from Christian iconography, in which it represents malign and darkness.In The Second Coming, the great beast emerges from the Spiritus Mundi, or soul of the universe, to function as the primary image of death in the poem. Yeats describes the onset of apocalyptic events in which the blood-dimmed tide is loosed and the ceremony of innocence is drowned as the world enters a new age and falls apart as a result of the widening of the historical gyres. The speaker system predicts the arrival of the Second Coming, and this prediction summons a vast image of a frightening monster pulled from the collective consciousness of the world.Yeats modifies the well-known image of the sphinx to embody the poems vision of the climactic coming. By rendering the terrifying prospect of disruption and change into an easily imagined horrifying monster, Yeats makes an abstract fear become tangible and real. The great beast slouches toward Bethlehem to be born, where it will evolve into a second Christ (or anti-Christ) figure for the dark new age. In this way, Yeats uses distinct, concrete imagery to symbolize complex ideas about the state of the modern world.