Tuesday, April 2, 2019

Scope And Delimitation Example

Scope And Delimitation ExampleINTRODUCTION play d experience of the sketchIn relation to the goal of Filipino political and frugal growing and sociable cohesiveness, there is a growing clamor to revisit and revive caseism. In the Philippines, it has been recognized that the issue of field of breedingism is important in education. sensation of the goals of the Education Act of 1982 that serves as a guideline for dim-witted education, is to promote and in 10sify the kids live onledge of identification with, and hunch over for the nation and the hoi polloi to which he belongs ( part of Education, 2002, p.2). This objective is as well as hinged on the 1987 authorship Article XIV, prick 3 (2) that res publicas that the rail shall inculcate patriotism and patriotism, foster love of humanity, prise for human rights, appreciation of the role of internal heroes in the historical cultivation of the dry land, teach the rights and duties of citizenship, strengthen ethica l and spiritual value, develop moral sh be and personal discipline, encourage critical and creative thinking, diversify scientific and proficient knowledge, and promote vocational efficiency (1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines, Department of Education, 2002, p.2).As agents of patriotism and caseism, the schoolingtime is mandated to cultivate pagka- Philippine in squirtren. In compliance with the1987 Constitution and the Education Act of 1982, the Department of Education came up with the future(a) objectives for the chief(a) education formal curriculum (1) inculcation of spiritual and civic values and the development of a wide Filipino ground on an persistent faith in God and genuine love of country (2) prep ar of the young citizen in his rights, duties and responsibilities in a democratic society for lively participation in a progressive and harvest-feastive home and residential area manners (3) development of basic understanding about Philippine cu lture, the delectable tradition and virtues of our citizenry as essential requisites in attaining case sentiency and solidarity (Department of Education, 2002, p.1-2).Moreover, the K to 12 Philippine Basic Education computer classme similarly reflects the signifi back toothce of teaching pagka-Filipino establish on the Department of Educations curriculum guide. One of the desired outcomes of the implementation of the M an opposite(prenominal) Tongue-establish Multilingual Education (MTB-MLE) is to develop gainers who usurp pride in their heathen heritage and are proud to be Filipinos. In the depicted object Early Learning Framework (NELF), the Filipino child is considered as the most important as bent of our county. The NELF firmly believes that the Filipino child is a human be who loves God, parents, and country, is proud to be a Filipino, complys the customs, traditions and good values of the people, knows his/her basic rights, respects opposite cultures and is able to live in peace and harmony with all (Department of Education, 2012, p.3). As archean as kindergarten, pagiging maka-Filipino or a content alive(predicate)ness of being a Filipino is courteous in the children, with the hope that this leave lead to ardent nationalism, love of country and pride as a Filipino.The importance of teaching nationalism and national identity operator in the earliest on punctuates has been established and promoted by the aver and state institutions much(prenominal) as school and the Department of Education. However, a work on national identity among urban school children by Doronila (1986) showed that Filipino children opt other countries over their own, and this preference deepens as they mature. A convertible information was besides conducted among 3rd year High School students in Baguio city by Herrera and Robias (2010), and the commentings revealed that although respondents exhibit a affirmative preference for things Filipino, these preferences comport not yet been lifted to a take of reason that would make their reflexion of much(prenominal) personal preferences as expressive of their identity as Filipino, or as charters of national identity (Herrera & Robias, 2010, p.67). This suggests that national identity among Filipino juvenility is superficial. harmonize to Yacat (2002), there are two kinds of pagka-Filipino Filipino by surname which is shallow and Filipino by heart which is deeply-rooted. He further accentuate the importance of the family where culture and Filipino identity take root and of the school which nurtures the idea of pagka-Filipino.Koh (2010) emphasized that it is during puerility that an individual starts to identify with the nation. She declared that childhood experience is commonplacely taken to be the bedrock upon which self-identity is make, and national consciousness is regarded by many as a samara foundation of a modern persons identity (Koh, 2010, p.1). Further more than, s he saw the need for studies on how children perceive national identity. She tell children should be central to the correction of national feeling, place-belonging, and citizenship. And yet, we do not know a great deal about how school-age children actually do relate to the idea of nation (Koh, 2010, p.2).The assertion of Koh (2010) and the studies by Doronila, Herrera and Robias, and Yacat presented two crucial issues (1) superficial national identification among Filipinos and (2) lack of studies on national identity and childhood.This look seeks to address these two problems by foc use on other(a) graders and their perspectives of pagka-Filipino. In Vygotskys social development guess (Ormrod, 2011), the child learns conceits by means of expression and action. He asserts that development is connected to social context and that the childs developmental direct should complement his learning. Hedges (2012) explained further that during the too soonish childhood years, Vyg otsky believed that popular beliefs were most prominent. According to Vygotsky, Everyday beliefs emerged from childrens thinking about their daily experiences that is, they exceed ad lib in the context of normal participation in family and association practices and activities (Hedges, 2012, P.145). By trenchant how children in the early grades perceive and construct their identity as Filipinos in the context of their common experiences, policy makers, teacher educators, curriculum developers, and early grades teachers allow gain greater insight into how the concept of national identity and nationalism take root in every Filipino child. The childrens perspectives will correct the K to 12 Philippine Basic Education Curriculum and its implementation.This study also investigates the perspectives of pagka-Filipino of early graders, based on local anaestheticly-published give books. This will hopefully add another dimension to the pedagogical aspect that keep be gained from t he childrens perspectives. Hillman (2003) described the see book as the childs gateway to the terra firma, the first cadence outside the childs immediate environment. The precise combination of art and talk of the town to is a powerful experience because it triggers the imagination & introduces concepts for cognitive and phrase development (Hillman, 2003, p.89). Aquino (2009) express that childrens literature activates the synopsis of the child and presents vicarious experiences that encourage cognitive assistes such as assimilation and accommodation. Piagets stages of cognitive development (Ormrod, 2011) show that as a child matures, he/she assimilates and accommodates knowledge, acquiring schemes through experience. Like building blocks, a child rouse create a castle by adding a block with every bit of in arrangement learned. The existing blocks are use to widen the childs body of knowledge. These blocks form the childs dodge and dodging can be influenced by social and ethnic experiences and interactions with text and illustrations found in cast books.Children learn by constructing their own knowledge. Carlsson-Paige (2001) states that children actively construct convey for themselves. These meanings, whimsical to each child, are embedded in family and culture and are built over time (Carlsson-Paige, 2001, p.17). She further claims that through stories, children can build tender-made meanings by referring to their personal meanings and experiences. Picture books are nucleusive material to find out in plough terms the pagka-Filipino of early graders. How the children perceive the spoken language and images in the cypher book that depict pagka-Filipino will enrich the concept of pagka-Filipino itself. The Filipino icons in the text and illustrations in picture books are concrete items that children can identify with. Through this study, early graders specifically Grade 1 and Grade 2 children will be engaged in delineate pagka-Filipino according to their perspectives and in their own words. By sitting down and talking with the children themselves, knowledge will be gained on how they shape and restructure the concept of national identity.This query attempted to fill the gap of the study on national identity and perspectives of early graders based on picture books and their experiences. picture from Kohs statement that it is through everyday living experiences that the children experience the nation (Koh, 2010, p. 174) and following Vygotskys claim that everyday concepts emerged from childrens thinking about their daily experiences that is, they occur spontaneously in the context of normal participation in family and community practices and activities (Hedges, 2012, P.145), it can be deduced that the everyday arena is important in the childs formation of the concept of pagka-Filipinoas supported by Almario and Almario (2009) specifically on Filipino games and further, by Koh (2010) on habituated routines. Therefo re, it can be assumed that everyday experiences and concrete materials surround the childs routines such as games, food, clothes, animals, famous people, things commonly use and activities often engaged in, are important domains to investigate in this study.Cook, G. and Cook, J. (2009) also stress that socialising and differential experiences play roles in sex activity differences and this pushs childrens perspectives (Cook, G. & Cook, J., 2009, p. 362). Comparing the similarities and differences in the early graders responses by gender and grade level will provide invigorated layers on the childrens insights on pagka-Filipino.Research ObjectivesThe objectives of this research wereTo probe how children in the early grades perceive and construct their identity as Filipinos in the context of their everyday experiences.To investigate the perspectives of pagka-Filipino of early graders, based on the text and illustrations of locally-published picture books.To broaden way of underst anding the childrens construction and description of pagka-Filipino according to their perspectives and in their own words.To compare the early graders perspectives of pagka-Filipino by gender and grade level.Statement of the enigmaSpecifically, this research sought to answer the following questionsWhat are the urban low-income childrens perspectives of pagka-Filipino based on their experiences?What are the urban low-income childrens perspectives of pagka-Filipino based on the text of picture books?Significance of the StudyThe results of the study will hopefully aid the Department of Educations curriculum division and the national Commission for the Culture and the Arts in developing a National ethnic Education Plan that will bring about appreciation of our culture, genuine love for our county and our pride in being a Filipino.It is also the hope of this study to raise the consciousness of publishers, writers, and illustrators to inculcate nationalism and Filipino pride in their published stories and other forms of literature for the early grades.This study of young learners perspectives of Pagka-Filipino and its depiction in picture books may be useful to our early grades teachers as a benchmark or yardstick on national identity formation and the tally interventions. Hopefully, it will also help educators in modifying their curriculum and teaching strategies based on what children know about our nation and their perspectives of being a Filipino.The research will also provide new directions for further studies that can be explored related to this topic.Furthermore, the study aims for the sweetener of the Teacher Education Instruction, especially didactics in the Early Grades, Early Childhood Education, and other related programs, through growing emphasis on nationalism in their curriculum so that our future teachers will inculcate love of country in Filipino children as early as the early grades.Scope and Delimitation of the StudyThe study is descriptiv e in nature and foc utilise on early graders belonging to low-families as place by the National Statistical Coordination Board. The research sample is composed of forty (40) Grade 1 and Grade 2 students residing in two barangays in Quezon City. The primary data gathering mode used was interview to determine the childrens perspectives of Pagka-Filipino based on their experiences and through their interactions with ten (10) locally-published picture books written by Filipino authors. This research used nonrandom and convenience sampling in which an equal representation for gender and grade level among the respondents was applied. The gathered data were analyzed using frequency statistical distribution and coding. Verbatim quotes from the respondents were used.The research data was based on interview of early grades children based on their experiences and interaction with selected picture books. It focused on gender and grade level as variables in interpreting their perspectives of pagka-Filipino.The study is delineate to a group of Grade 1 and Grade 2 children access from a socially-disadvantaged group in an urban area. Perspectives on pagka-Filipino is delimited to early graderseveryday experiences on games Filipino children play, food Filipino children eat, clothes Filipino children wear, animals in the Philippines they know, famous Filipinos they know, things Filipino children use and activities Filipino children engage ininteractions with the text and illustration of selected picture books.In this research, Filipino icons were delimited to those identified by the National Commission for the Culture and the Arts Essential knowledge on Philippine Arts, Culture and Heritage for the Basic Education Curriculum (EKPACHBEC) for Grade 1 and 2 (See Appendix A) and Adarna Houses 101 Filipino Icons Volumes I and II (2007, 2009). According to Wright (1998), there exists a politicization of culture wherein there is a political work at of contestation over the powe r to define make concepts, including that of culture itself (Wright, 1998, p.14). In this case, the researcher is aware of the politics involved in the identification of Filipino icons by a state institution and a commercial publisher.CHAPTER IIREVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND CONCEPTUAL manakinThis chapter is divided into the review of related literature and studies, the conceptual framework and comment of terms. The review of related literature discusses Schema possibility and Vygotskys friendly nurture Theory on which the study is anchored on, and the pertinent studies on children regarding (1) abstract theory/culture schemata (2) national identity and pagka-Filipino (3) national identity among early grades children (4) childrens literature, storytelling, and national identity (5) picture books (6) picture books and pagka-Filipino and (7) gender and picture books.Schema TheoryPiaget is the prop angiotensin-converting enzyment of schema theory (Ormrod, 2011). He said that as a child matures, he/she assimilates and accommodates knowledge, acquiring schemata through experience. Like building blocks, a child can create a castle by adding a block with every bit of information learned. The existing blocks are used to widen the childs body of knowledge. These blocks form the childs schema and schema can be influenced by social and cultural experiences and interactions with text and illustrations found in picture books. In Piagets Theory of Cognitive Development, children from two to s withal years sometime(a) belong to the preoperational stage and can already express themselves and describe the world through words and images.R.C. Anderson (Widmayer, 2003 in downwind & Tsai, 2004), an educational psychologist, expanded the schema theory which proposes that our understanding or knowledge of the world is composed of create network of abstract mental structures. Widmayer (2003), added that schema is used to interpret and auspicate situations (in leeward & Ts ai, 2004). It was further proposed that each person possesses a unique set of schema which is built from the individuals cognitive processes and experiences (Lee & Tsai, 2004).Based on the schema theory, Lee and Tsai (2004) further suggest that individuals learn or acquire knowledge in triple ways accretation, tuning, and restructuring. Accretation involves assimilating new information into existing schema without any changes to overall schema. Tuning, on the other hand, entails modification of existing schema when it is inadequate for the encountered new information/knowledge, while restructuring involves creating a new schema for situations wherein there is inconsistency between the new information/knowledge and the disused schema. Accretion is parallel to Piagets assimilation while tuning and restructuring are similar to accommodation.McVee, Dunsmore & Gayelek (2005), in a review of schema theory, indicated that schema theory was peculiarly prominent in the 1970s especially on the role of schema in reading, adding that the focus shifted to sociocultural theories in the 80s and 90s. The authors further pointed out the importance of the schema theory, particularly its utility in understanding the individuals antecedent knowledge and its role in inclusion body and in understanding the reading process.Social Development TheoryIn Vygotskys Social Development Theory, engaging in social practice plays a critical role in the development of the child. Through socialization, children construct their own knowledge, form concepts, and actively find meaning to make smack of the world. It is a fundamental form of learning and experience consciousness is the result of interaction with other people within a shared experience.In this shared socio-cultural context, children use tools within a culture, such as signs, symbols, and language, to function in the social environment. Children assimilate language-a ready-made product of socio-historical development-and use it to analyze, generalize, and encode experience (Luriia, 1976, p. 9). Gleaning from Vygotskys semantic and system structure of consciousness, Luriia states that words are the fundamental units of consciousness reflecting the external world (Luriia, 1976, p. 9).Vygotsky believed that concept formation is rooted in the use of words which acquire different meanings at successive stages of development (Luriia, 1976, p. 50). It is interesting to note how Vygotsky described the thinking process of a child. At first, the child thinks by remembering but when he/she reaches adolescence, he/she remembers by thinking. According to Luriia, this is because an adolescent no longer generalizes on the primer coat of his immediate impressions but isolates certain distinct attributes of objects as the basis of categorization (1976, p. 52). This illustrates the movement from social to individual consciousness, a consciousness that is wrought and enriched by the childs participation in the society.Hed ges (2012) explained further that during the early childhood years, Vygotsky believed that everyday concepts were most prominent. According to Vygotsky, Everyday concepts emerged from childrens thinking about their daily experiences, that is, they occur spontaneously in the context of normal participation in family and community practices and activities (Hedges, 2012, P.145)Studies on Schema Theory and Culture SchemataWebster (2001) examines the effect of culture schemata on reading cellular inclusion of ninety-six 9th Grade students in four honor classes in Maryland. He analyzes the responses of the students to multicultural stories focusing on cultural awareness along with its significance to reading, comprehension, and learning. Results reveal varying response to the stories even for those with the analogous cultural background because of the respondents unique personalities and experiences. Of note are the responses of some participants who restructured their schemata to deal with new information. The respondents eventually assimilated the information from the storybooks which they initially rejected. Findings show that the participants are culturally aware and that cultural awareness aids the students in reading comprehension. However, the study is not clear on whether the similarity between the participants and the story (culture) helped them in reading it. Still, the results of the research support past studies which indicate that students tend to learn more information that are complementing or in congruence with their cultural background.Webster (2001) recommends a wholistic approach to culture, especially in education research. He calimed that, it should cover not just heathenity and race but also extend to the individuals age, gender, education, religion, social class, politics, physical condition, sexual orientation, nationality, and residence. Furthermore, as the students are becoming more aware of the multicultural nature of their world, teach ers are encouraged to take a multicultural perspective so as to reach out to their students.Kreishan and Saidat (2011), on the other hand, examine the impact of content schema on reading comprehension focusing on how religious and cultural schemata affect Jordanian students comprehension of English texts. Respondents are one hundred 10th Grade Arab Moslem students randomly selected and evenly distributed based on gender. Four reading texts were used to measure reading comprehension, two of which are of the participants culture and religion whereas the other two are of different or foreign culture and religion. Based on the results of the tests and interviews, the reading comprehension of participants tested in the familiar texts, which reflects primordial religion and culture, exhibited significantly prouder performance. Findings indicate that cultural background can trigger schemata and improve comprehension. In light of the result, the authors recommend stimulating prior knowle dge first on the subject matter before reading. other recommendations were also mentioned such as improving texts to reflect various aspects of culture, religion, and local problems of the country making use of the Internet to further learning and for conk out comprehension and Islamicization, Jordanization, and Arabicization of English materials especially its cultural content. Further studies suggested include effect of extended time on comprehension and effect of other variables on reading comprehension such as the font of texts.The research of Lee & Tsai (2004) explores the impact of stories on young children particularly, on how childrens schema can be augmented by stories. The authors present a model to understand how stories affect quality of schemas among seven- year old children. The model suggests that there are three main sources of stories for the children family members, teachers, and friends. The process would then involve decoding the stories and relating it with th eir already acquired concepts (accretating or no change to existing schemas). In cases of new knowledge, the model indicates that the new information will go through tuning (modification of existing schemas) or restructuring (forming new schemas). With children who are inquisitive and eager to learn, the model signifies that there is a higher chance of forming new schemas than modifying existing schemas among young children. The authors state that stories can enhance the quality of schemas of children and with it, the childrens level of interpretation, prediction, and understanding. Thus, there is a proposal that more stories would increase the childrens schemata of the world. Moreover, the authors further linked the quality of schemas to problem solving, suggesting that gaining more life experience would enhance problem solving ability.Although cognitively, females develop verbal and language skills at a younger age and are more talkative, Cook, G. and Cook, J. (2009) accent that socialization and differential experiences play roles in gender differences and this affects childrens perspectives (Cook, G. & Cook, J., 2009, p. 362).National individualism and Pagka-FilipinoIn their study of national identity among high school students, Herrera and Robias cited William Blooms definition of national identity as a condition in which a mass of people have made the same identification with national symbolshave internalized the symbols of the nation so that they may act as one mental group when there is a threat to, or the possibility of enhancement of, their symbols of national identity (in Herrera & Robias, 2010, p.10). This coincides with Doronilas (1986) research on the meaning of Filipino national identity conducted among urban school children using a 35-item National identity operator Scale (NIS) for Students. The questions were based on the four value patterns namely (1) ethnocentrism (2) valuing socio-historical aspects broody of national identity (3) loya lty to the national state beyond ethnic loyalties (4) commitment to the role requirements of citizenship (Doronila, 1986, p.11-12). Under each value pattern are a set of orientation or attitudes that serve as be parameters for national identity. The 16 attitudes are either essentialist or epochalist in nature, using Geertz forms of national consciousness. Doronila agreed with Geertz that essentialist aspects of national ideologizing are the initial point of identification. The essentialist aspects are national symbols, generalized love of country, and appreciation of cultural aspects. Her findings reveal that Filipino children favor other countries over their own and this preference deepens as they mature.brown (2000) explains the constructivist approach to national identity. He claims that it is constructed on the basis of institutional or ideological frameworks which offer simple and simplistic formulas of identity, and diagnoses of contemporary problems, to otherwise confuse an d insecure individuals (Brown, 2000, p.20). For children, social institutions like family and school help in determine their national identity.Herrera and Robias (2010) adapted Doronilas NIS to find out the perspectives of national identity among 3rd year high school students in Baguio City. The results showed that although respondents exhibit a positive preference for things Filipino, these preferences have not yet been lifted to a level of consciousness that would make their manifestation of such personal preferences as expressive of their identity as Filipino, or as charters of national identity (Herrera & Robias, 2010, p.67). This suggests that even at the age of adolescence, Filipinos are still on the essentialist level of identifying with our nation. The study also shows that Filipinos are perceived as industrious and family-oriented people.In a study on pagka-Filipino, Yacat (2002) claimed that there are two kinds of pagka-Filipino Filipino by name which is shallow and Fili pino by heart which is deeply-rooted. He provided some(prenominal) sources of knowledge which he acknowledged as important in the process of being a Filipino. Among them are family, school, community, and mass media. He further stressed the importance of the family where culture and Filipino identity take root and of the school which nurtures the idea of pagka-Filipino. Moreover, Yacat (2002) elaborates that the consciousness of being a Filipino starts through the find external experiences of the people and is imbibed internally only through teachings and learning through their own experience. Thus, the individuals sense of pagka-Filipino depends on the kind and type of information being processed and accepted.David (2009) asserts that our consciousness of pagka-Filipino does not come automatically. Knowing the national symbols is not enough. These should not only remind us that we are Filipinos but also of our commitment as Filipinos. Being aware that we are part of one country s hould be deeper than the mere singing of the national anthem (David, 2009).Felipe de Leon Jr., temper of the National Commission for Culture and the Arts, emphasizes that pride in being a Filipino leads to national development. He further claimed that it requires a deep sense of identity to claim what is ours. Moreover, to achieve national unity, there must be a generalized pride for our country and a genuine love for the Philippines. Taking to heart this national sense of being a Filipino should be a collective WE feeling that translates to national unity and economic success (Abueva, 1999).Sanchez presents a way to achieve these shared aspirations of Filipinos through education. She states further, This national consciousness will then help define our identity as a people and lead us to work towards the attainment of common goals for our society (2002, p.2).Sanchez (2002) explains that Filipinos have a shared schema, knowledge and culture cognize as cultural literacy. Her study measured the cultural literacy of high school students. The study yielded disappointing results students from private and public schools do not have adequate knowledge of Philippine art, not one respondent reached the going score of 50. Equally worth discussing is the teachers performance only 20% authentic a passing score in the same cultural literacy test. The cultural literacy test was based on a canon/ must know checklist of cultural items that every grade VI and fourth year high school should know.According to Wright (1998), there exists a politicization of culture wherein there is a political process of contestation over the power to define key concepts, including that of culture itself (Wright, 1998, p.14). The National Commission for the Culture and the Arts (NCCA) is a state institution that defines culture and cultural icons. In 2004, the NCCA started work on the Philippine Cultural Index Project (PCIP), the key project of its Philippine Cultural Education Plan (PCEP). T he PCIP is a massive research, database enrichment, computerization and publication program that would provide a national database on culture and the arts in the Philippines (Asia-Pacific Cultural Centre for UNESCO, 2005, p.7). One of the outputs of PCIP is the Essential Knowledge on Philippine Arts, Culture and Heritage for the Basic Education Curriculum (EKPACHBEC) for elementary and secondary winding level (See Appendix A). The EKPACHBEC is a concise list of important people/institutions, events, places, and objects for each grade level up to high school.Adarna House also came out with 101 Filipino Icons Volumes 1 and 2 (2007, 2009). Virgilio Almario, National artisan for Literature, defined Filipino icons as events, objects, places, and people significant in Philippine history and valued by majority of Filipinos. He further stated that these icons can influence our pagka-Filipino and pride in being a Filipino.National Identity Among Early Grades ChildrenThe paper Findings, Theo ries and Methods in the Study of Childrens National Identifications and National Attitudes (Barrett & Oppenheimer, 2011)

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